The composting process
At the heart of composting is the decomposition process, which accumulated in the medium organic material by heat, humidity, internal reactions of interaction of substances and microorganisms that are present in any organic substance.During this process, not only the disintegration of organic matter into separate components, but also new and complex substances formed - biologically active substances, humus.About the beginning of the decomposition process of the material indicates increasing temperature.
duration of the process of decomposition of compost depends on the desired end-product quality, it can last up to 12 months.Decomposition begins very rapidly and slows down at later stages.Compost is necessary to interrupt to activate the decomposition process and to achieve uniformity in all its layers.After thrashing core temperature of the compost is lowered first, but then rapidly increased, due to the intensification of the process of decomposition due to the influx of oxygen.
process of decomposition of organic substances is aerobic, that is possible only in the presence of oxygen.With sufficient moisture and access of air micro-organisms feed on decomposing organic material, and get with the vitality not from sunlight, but as a result of carbon oxidation in carbon dioxide.oxidation processes accompanied by release of a substantial amount of heat as when burned.During compost ripening huge energy conversion occur.Microorganisms live cleaving natural carbon compounds, in various forms symbiosis as long as there is a substance necessary for their life.Then they die, giving the organic substance of their organisms and derived products for the collapse of the lives of other microorganisms.Thus, in particular, nitrogen supply and discharge alienated intestinal organisms dead bacteria.
Rot is a process opposite to degradation, as occurs anaerobically, ie without oxygen.Rot - unhealthy form of decay, one of the main features of which is the appearance extremely unpleasant odor caused by malodorous metabolic products: methane, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, indole and other.In addition, in the process of decay in the decay of organic compounds having toxic, harmful substances of plants, so the main goal of any measures in the preparation of high-quality compost should be to prevent congestive processes of decay.
Compost is constantly changing during the degradation process in their physical, chemical and biological state.The decomposition process takes several phases of compost and its length is based on the expected quality of the final product 6-12 months, during expansion of the volume of material is reduced by 20 %. Each expansion phase is characterized by the special features and the emergence of various forms of microorganisms.
1. decay phase
primary decomposition of the raw material.Participating elementary soil microorganisms: 1) mold fungus, 2) and 3) actinomycetes,
4) eubabakterii 5) helical bacteria,
6) aerobic spirillae
2. Phase reconstruction
transitional stage from the stage of pure decomposition.Increase in the number of microorganisms: 1) The actinomycetes 2) penicillium, 3) the yeast fungus, 4) and 5) mold capitatum, 6) spirillae,
3. Phase synthesis
Getting active creative processes, the formation of immature compost.Increased chischennosti complex soil organisms: 1) Multiped Rolling, 2) the yeast fungus, 3) mold capitatum, 4) penicillium,
5) Mold Green, 6) mold capitatum, 7) actinomycetes, 8) composting worm,
9) vilohvostka, 10) oribatady or hard ticks, 11) larva skorpionovoy flies (12) centipede, 13) vilohvostka, 14) beetle, 15) larva mosquito tolstonozhki, 16) larva small housefly, 17) Multiped Rolling,18) maggot hoverflies
4. Phase maturation
Continued complex internal processes of construction of compost material, mature compost.The diverse and active life of the soil microfauna:
1) harvestman, 2) vilohvostka 3) larva meadow crane-fly, 4) plant chickweed or woodlice, 5) and 6) larvae ground beetles, 7) muckworm, 8), chickweed,9) oribatid or hard ticks, 10) cochlea, 11) mite,
12) predatory mite, 13) larvae carrion,
14) cochlea, 15) ant, 16) larvae of the May beetle, 17) yeastfungus, 18) millipede, 19) ordinary cricket, 20) penicillium
5. Phase humification
formation of resistant forms of humus, compost soil valuable education: 1) spider steed, 2) ant 3) vilohvostka4) nematodes, 5) beetle, 6) cross-section of the leaf nematodes, 7) chuck, 8), chickweed, 9) garden shrew, 10) millipede, AND) earthworm, 12) oribatid or hard ticks,
13) algae, 14) chafer
decay phase, is essentially a primary decomposition of the material.
rapid rise in temperature in the interior of the compost to 60-70 ° C.
progressive decay of organic substances easily reversible.
-I - No growth of microorganisms.
protozoa feed on easily degradable protein and sugar, cellulose and fats.
Destruction of pathogens under the influence of the thermal reaction of plant diseases, reducing the germination of weed seeds.
Reducing the value of acidity.
Lowering the temperature to 30-35 ° C.
Activation of the growth of fungi: yeast fungus, radiation fungus, green mold.
Improved gas exchange.
Ammonia forms organic compounds.The ratio of C: N ratio is reduced.
temperature drops to 20 ° C.
- * Significant weight settling soil organisms higher development: dung worms, woodlice, vilohvostkami.
Through the activities of compost worms occurs enhanced mixing organic and mineral parts of the material.
Organic substances move into a form available to plants.
Compost takes on a dark color, it can be used as a crude product for mulching.
Immature compost can be used within a few months after the laying of the material, it is rich in nitrogen and contains a large amount of nutrients.
The main value of the immature compost is its activating influence on soil microorganisms, ie compost decomposition process has been going directly to the soil.Furthermore, immature compost contains biogenic stimulants of plant growth and promotes the formation of carbon dioxide in the soil.
Immature compost can not embed deeply into the soil, to avoid any decay processes associated with a lack of oxygen for continued expansion in immature compost process.
compost temperature is compared with the natural soil temperature.Stop decomposition processes.
oxygen demand decreases; - C: N ratio is set about 20: 1.
;;.- Compost is characterized by loose structure with a healthy earthy smell of the forest land caused by the vital activity of the actin-mycetomas.Compost is ready to use.
mature compost is the end product of the composting process and an exceptional value for the fertilizer product.
- The main advantage of mature compost is formed close ties of nutrients in the humus compounds Thus, the mature compost can be considered stable form of humus.
Mature compost is recommended for use on problem soils, which are not able to complete the process of transformation of immature compost, and to create a substrate for growing seedlings, balcony and indoor plants.
arise stable humus form with a well-connected in their nutrient composition.
Manure worms disappear, render habitable compost earthworms, which indicates the product is ready.
compost to fertilize the action is reduced, but developing quality, contributing to durable improvement of soil structure.
Doi achieve rapid fertilizing effect it is recommended to use the compost water.For its preparation you need to shovel full of mature compost to put in a bucket, add water, better rain, and let stand.During this time, several times to mix, wait until the settle slurry poured into a watering can and water the plants.Compost water quickly gives nutrients to plants and enhances their defenses.Therefore crop fertilization using compost of water can be considered as measures for the prevention of plant diseases.