Each of us consumes an annual average of about 5 kg of carrots per year. Carrot occupies a significant place in the diet first and foremost as an important source of carotene, provitamin A. Karotel (so-called early varieties of carrots) can be sown in the garden is already late autumn to spring harvest, to accelerate the growth of crops close the film.In February and April, sow late kinds of carrots.
She slowly rises, and so with it can be grown, such as radishes.Grow up early varieties of carrots, "Nantes", "Carola", "Rubin", from imported seeds - Late carrots "Zino" and Class "Larose".Carrot
contains about 87% water, many (up to 7 mg%), carotene, vitamins, about 10 mg% of vitamin C, vitamin K, and PP dr.V it has an essential oil, pectin, sugar, lecithin, mineral substancesand especially calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium.The beneficial properties of carrot look here.
In growing carrots must be remembered that she likes enough to illuminate the space under it can not be applied t
Carrot juice contains essential oil, previously used against parasitic worms (worms, ascarids).Carrot juice is good for the eye condition, and according to some authors, prevent the development of cancer.Carrot juice is also a diuretic, improves the health of intestinal and gastric diseases.This juice has a prominent place in the liver and bile diet.
carrots should be consumed frequently, the recommended daily dose of it - 50-100 g, but it is useful to eat with a small amount of fat for better absorption of carotene in the digestive tract, and the carrots must grate on a fine grater.Carrots can be combined with grated apple, added to salads of sauerkraut and fresh cabbage salad with lemon, mayonnaise with celery, onion and lemon, can be used as a paste to the curd.Carrots are used in soups, salads, served as a side dish.Very good carrot complements meat dishes and floury.Carrots can be cooked, canned, pour sweet-sour marinade or added to other canned mixed vegetables with cucumbers, onions.A favorite in the Russian Federation sterilized salad consists of three parts slaw and 1 part karoteli, 1 onion and 1 part of the red sweet pepper in sweet and sour marinade.This salad is prepared in the fall, when there are plenty cabbage and carrots autumn.
This is one of the most popular and common roots.Carrot belongs to the family Umbelliferae (celery).Modern varieties of carrots - came from the Mediterranean.
What I like carrots? sand, loose, rich in organic matter, but not too greasy soil, prefers lit place, but reconciled and with little shading.It grows best on neutral soil, but can grow and slightly acidic.
Why does not like carrots? tightly or compacting after rain and irrigation of soils, as its root system needs a lot of oxygen, especially in the early stages.The dense root shallow soil.Carrot root is very sensitive to the homogeneity of the soil structure.Even if the central stem in the process of growth will stumble pas stone, twisted root or split in two.If the soil layers are not uniform in their structure, a root vegetable has a constriction.
Carrot does not like acid soil, a large amount of fertilizer, root from which it becomes woody and tasteless.Under the carrots you can not make fresh organic matter, much less fresh or badly rotted manure - it will rot right in the ground or in storage.Furthermore, doses in excess of nitrogen in any form carrot root branching.You can not make a carrot fertilizers containing chlorine (potassium chloride or potassium salt), - it is also a branch or root bend.
can not make a carrot lime in the year of planting - carrots will pyatihvostoy or semihvostoy.Even if you make the ash directly at sowing seeds, roots will be the many-.When deoxidation of soil under the carrot is better to use dolomite flour or chalk, to be made in the fall.
There are several sortotipov carrots, different shape, size, color, sugar content.
From early grades it should be noted karotel Paris - a rounded, like radishes, sweet, very early (about 65-70dney after germination), but badly stored carrots.The length of the fruit only 3-5 cm
Amsterdam -. long, flat, thin, cylindrical, with a very small core, the length of the fruit varies from 15 to 40 cm As a rule, sweet, early, but poorly stored..By Tall concerns everyone's favorite carrot Minokor - Medium early (80-90 days), as well as AB C., Parmeks.
Nantes - cylindrical, slightly tapering towards the end, middle-ripening (about 100 to 110 days), suitable for storage.Of our varieties are also widespread peasant, vitamins, Carl, Losinoostrovskaya and Altai shortened, Moscow winter (about 120 days).
Of late varieties (160 days), the most widely used Longa Vita and Pharaoh.Flaccus - long cylindrical root crops, late ripening (150 days) - designed specifically for long-term storage (fruit length is about 20 cm).By Tall applies grade Red Giant.Also suitable for storing Shantane - korotkoplodnaya with a small core, a conical shape (length about 15 cm fetuses).
The earliest hybrids (90 days) - Napoli II, Nyugeit F1, Navarino F1, Peasant.
Early-maturing hybrids (100 to 110 days) - Nandrin F1, Niagara F1, Bremen F1, Newton F1, Newburgh F1, Nigel F1, Royal F1, Red Coredo F1, Denver F1.
srednepozdnie hybrids (120 days) - Napa, Nevis, Bangor F1, Jaguar F1, Mars F1, Cordoba F1, Cascade F1.
Late storage (130-140 days) - Narbonne F1, Bristol F1, Berlind F1, Kazan F1, Flakkoro F1, Flakino F1, Kamaran F1, Fontana F1, Kathmandu F1.
Carrots - cold-resistant plants, at all stages of development, it is easy to tolerate frosts to -5 ...- 6 degrees, so it is better to plant as early as possible.For the North-West, the best sowing period - end of April.In areas with a continental climate, it can be sown before winter.However, where in the winter often they thaw, carrots better to sow in March, preparing the beds for planting in the fall.
Carrots can be sown at a temperature of 5 degrees or even lower.However, the best temperature for germination - 13 degrees, despite the fact that the carrot seeds, like all cold-resistant crops hatch at 4 and 6 degrees when germinate.
Early carrot crops avoid attacks umbrella psylla.
However, you can make and late sowing (early June - for the North-West), which also allows you to get away from psylla.But if at that time the temperature will exceed 22 degrees, the carrots will be sustained development and root formed rough.
carrots better to sow in the furrows 15-20 cm. The soil has to be not only the fall of at least 20 cm (or better yet 30-40 cm) to a depth of dig, picking stones out of it, but even sift.Better yet, make a bed of carrot mixture of peat (or sawdust, pine needles) and sifted sand.For every bucket of peat should take half a bucket of sand and add a liter of ash.On this basis the carrot will grow perfectly straight 3-4 years.Firstly, there is no weed seeds;secondly, it is saturated with air.It takes only an additional annual introduction of chlorine-free potassium for spring pre-filling soil (1/2 cup per meter).
can sow carrots in a Y-shaped groove depth of 20 cm, made directly in the soil (without ridges).Furrows made at a distance of 20 cm from each other and run by the same mixture of peat and sand, as noted above.These grooves make the groove depth of 1 cm and are seeded in carrot seeds.Then the soil is leveled.When sowing carrots for the winter, or in March, the seeds buried in the soil a little deeper, to 2 cm. Sow carrots in moist soil.Seedlings appear within 7-20 days.Before germination can not be watered flower bed, and that the seeds do not dry hatched in the upper layer of soil in dry or windy weather, the beds should be sown after the cover film, which should be removed as soon as the seedlings emerge.
Slow emergence of seedlings carrot essential oil contained in its seeds.
There is a recommendation to accelerate the germination of carrots - soak the seeds before planting in running water for a day to flush
essential oils.This technique improves the germination of carrots and accelerates the emergence of seedlings, but he has another side.Firstly, there are too weak plants, while the essential oils will not receive them.Secondly, from the seeds washed potassium, which ultimately reflects badly on the quality of root crops.Much better to use a different method: by pouring carrot seeds in a bag made of cloth, for half an hour to put it under running hot water.
I sow carrot seeds with a dust fraction of fertilizer AVA:. 1 teaspoon of seeds take 1 teaspoon of fertilizer and 1/2 cup of fine sand or rot from sleeping tea or coffee..Stir and sow as if I salt the mixture prepared groove.The soil is leveled and pressed board.
With this sowing carrots are thickened, and the summer is not required to make any additional fertilizing, watering except single infusion of weeds in the early days after emergence.
In the early stages of the carrot is easily drowned out by weeds, it does not tolerate deep hoeing and weeding, as her thin, soft, sucking roots are easily damaged, and the future root is curved.For this reason, the first thinning stage in 1 -2 true leaf should not be done, tearing the extra plants, and should be carefully cut off their nail scissors on the level of the soil.At the first thinning leave between plants in a distance of 1.5 to 2 cm
In the second thinning distance between root crops can be left in the 5-6 cm and only for large-fruited varieties of root crops in the distance between the rows of leaves about 10 cm and between rows -. Up15-20 cm. in the second thinning carrots can weed out and remove the plants to use with tops in soups and salads.The most common mistake - late, especially the first thinning carrots - good root crops do not have to wait.
If you have not previously released (rows of weeds, they germinate earlier carrots and weeding to do it will be difficult, because the carrot rows is not yet visible. In order to mark the carrot rows should be at sowing add it seeds a little different culture seeds thatquickly germinate, such as lettuce or radish. These shoots will mark furrows carrots, and between the rows will be to clean up the weeds without fear of damaging the carrot. weeds better not to pull, and cut them on a level ground. aisles loosen very careful not to get too close to the rowscarrots.
If seedlings carrots immediately cover lutrasilom or other non-woven fabric and water beds directly on lutrasilom, no pests your carrots are not afraid. Take off the cover before the harvest, when the end of the second year of carrot fly.
small amount of carrots canvery early grow by sowing it in the film itself (or so glass) in a greenhouse in a row.Interfere with greenhouse plants, it is not because they are planted 20-25 cm from the film or the glass.Light carrots would be enough even under the canopy of greenhouse plants.
Fertilizing and watering
first feeding are doing in conjunction with the first decimation (if you did not sow carrots with AVA).It is best to use the infusion of weeds (diluted with water at a ratio of 1: 5), to be necessary to add potassium, containing no chlorine (sulfate or potassium carbonate).Just add 1-2 tbsp.spoons of potassium fertilizer na weed bucket solution.Carrots - kalielyub.Its agronorma 38 and the balance 34: 13: 53. Therefore, in the second stage in the thinning of 5-6 true leaf should be feed back potassium, by giving Sem.tablespoons fertilizer per 10 liters of water (again, if you sow without AVA).
watering carrot needs only the first stage of growth, to the second thinning.In the future, carrots should not be watered even in dry weather.With an excess of moisture, it forms a hairy root or root begins her crack.This carrot is not stored, it is necessary to immediately start up the processing of blanks for the winter.Cracking can cause root and soil application of excessive doses of nitrogen.Often gardeners heartily watered weeds carrot extract, and then marvel why roots cracked.
Carrots should be cleaned after the first frost, because it must necessarily pass through a stage of natural cooling.If you must remove the carrot harvest until frost, be sure to leave it in the refrigerator for a day, or elevated part will continue to grow, and root fade.
Diseases and pests
main pest of carrots - an umbrella psylla, wintering in the coniferous cultures.Attacks carrots, dill, parsley, celery, rarely, in the early spring, as soon as the air temperature rises to 7-8 degrees Celsius.On carrot psylla attacks in the stage 1 -2 leaves, lay larvae into the rosette of leaves.The larva sucks sap from young leaves, causing them to twist.Of these damaged plants good root crops do not receive, they should be immediately removed.The most reasonable means of combating psylla - it is early or, alternatively, later (in early June) planting dates.But then there is the danger of an attack of spring flies.The easiest way to cover the carrots crops lutrasilom.Sometimes it is recommended to water them with a solution of kerosene or sprinkle mothballs.This should not be done: first, roots will have these odors, secondly, kerosene and naphthalene - powerful carcinogens, and they our body to anything.
carrot fly flies twice, the first - during the flowering cherries, the second - from late July to late August.
Summer fly flying simultaneously with butterfly Belyanko, so once flashed conspicuous, white, butterfly, cabbage, carrots, cover crops immediately lutrasilom.Sometimes it is recommended to fill the aisles of carrots with pine needles or ash, plant marigolds to disorient pest or plant between the rows of carrots onion sets.Significant damage to crops can cause voles, wireworms and various caterpillars scoop.The nematode can also inhibit the carrots.A common technique - planting marigolds between rows - only confuses the fly, but does not protect against nematodes indirect.But the alternation of carrot crop (or any other culture) with planting marigolds for the whole season - successful reception.The nematode penetrates though marigolds, but lose the ability to reproduce, and therefore the next year from this bed is free of nematodes.
From the most unpleasant diseases - Gangrene Gangrène.This root rot, often affecting it in storage.fungus spores live in the soil for 3-4 years, so that if the disease was the carrot in this place is not worth planting for 4 years.It is superficial necrosis disease excess nitrogen.This usually happens after the introduction of fresh manure.To avoid the disease helps booster doses of potassium, so if you already have and for sowing carrots manure, the increase in potassium fertilizer.Sometimes there
summer winding carrot leaves.At the same time they become bluish or reddish tint.This, of course, not psylla.Since the plant indicates potassium deficiency.Lack of barium and manganese in the soil can lead to blackening of the core in the roots.Therefore, in any case once a season, at the time of root growth (after the 5-6-leaf), carrots should be sprayed with micronutrients.
For this purpose is best suited «Uniflor-micro" (or "Uniflor-bud" if there is a lack of potassium).Root crop often sticks out of the ground.It certainly should be covered with soil, or part, sticking out above the soil surface and turn green will malosedobnoy.