digging, and digging is the most important and most thorough of the basic measures for the mechanical treatment of the soil, in which the soil layers are selected on a bayonet spade, inverted and partially crushed.Mainly agronomic value of digging is that it loosens the soil to a considerable depth.
During autumn digging layers and clods of earth are not split up and left for the winter.Under the influence of frost they crumble, and in the spring they finally crushed and choose the rhizomes of weeds in the spring surface treatment of the soil.By the autumn digging rough recommend limed soil and make fertilizers, such as manure, compost is immature, mineral complexes.It should be noted that on heavy soils, manure under the autumn digging is necessary to plug the deep, as its absorption and decomposition into simple nutrients available to plants, there is loosened in the upper layer.
digging advantages as a method of primary tillage
improves the structure of heavy clay soils, as in the process of
enrich the soil with oxygen.
Helps enable not tired cropping deeper layers of the soil.
Promotes reliable weed control along with the root system.
Allows you to evenly distribute the fertilizer application facilitates their absorption.
destroys burrows and tunnels of rodents and insects.
can spend and spring digging
soil, but in this case would be missed opportunity autumn fertilizer and the process becomes more difficult.In addition, we have to wait for the complete drying of the land in the area that in the conditions of a long spring will require a lot of extra time.It should also be remembered that when the spring digging soil loses accumulated with melted snow and moisture before planting will take some time (usually 2-3 weeks) required for the settling of the soil and recovery of hair capillaries in the soil is thicker, supplying moisture roots of plants withoutwhich can not be full contact with the soil of the root system.When digging there is a possibility of deepening the arable layer, which is especially important for soils with little arable layer.To do this, when you turn the reservoir should take some land from a deeper layer of soil, then mix and fertilize.Thus the thickness of the mined topsoil roots of plants increases, and then introduced 1. bayonet spade.
8. Shoulder-scoop.9 - peg.
10. grebkovyh forks
of fertilizer the soil becomes more fertile.
If the soil went out of culture, it is sufficient to loosen the surface, for example, out of potatoes, you can not dig site after the harvest, but only loosen during the spring processing.
begin spring tillage can be no earlier than the point where it ceases to adhere to the sole of the shoe.Prior to this, it is better not to go to the square, intended for sowing and planting, to avoid packing more raw land
Deep digging with the removal of the surface dead land from the lower layers of the soil is carried out to a depth of 1 m and a pickaxe and a bayonet spade.After switching
Rough digging to a depth of bayonet spade in the autumn after the harvest is compulsory measure of processing of heavy soils.In winter, under the action of frost large clods crumble, and the spring will only leveling or, if necessary, the surface digging soil
Some gardeners believe that digging a bad effect on soil fertility, affecting the livelihoods of bacteria and earthworms, thus breaking the natural balance.So they poured on the ground a thick layer of crude or finished compost, rotted manure or peat, allowing worms and other organisms to evolve in enriching the soil material.Seeds are sown in compost and as plant growth mulch added.Undoubtedly, this method minimizes labor costs, but requires a considerable amount of compost and manure.Digging, though more time consuming, but it is cheaper and has been found, the yield of some crops was significantly increased by treatment of the soil to a depth of 90 cm. In addition, the virgin, overgrown, uncultivated or have not cultivated digging of ground is an essential way of tillage.
alternative to digging a well-cultivated, rich in humus loose soil - covering the surface of beds after harvest with a thick layer of leaves or raw compost.The soil in this case will remain loose, well moisturized, and in the spring requires only loosening and leveling.Autumn rough digging in this case excluded
nose to the surface of a dead land fertilized with compost, manure, which makes it quite fertile.This operation is most often carried out before planting vines.There are various ways of digging, the most common of which is a single-tier , or simple digging.This technique is used almost universally digging.It is suitable for conventional processing of most soils with sufficient depth cultivated layer having no compacted sole.Under single-tiered digging the soil is processed to a depth of bayonet spade.
single storey section begin digging, removing the earth from the furrow depth of the bayonet spade and a width of 30-40 cm along one edge of the dig site (1).Chosen from the first furrow the soil dumped on the opposite side of the plot (it will be used to fill the final furrow).If necessary, placed in the bottom groove and thoroughly mixed manure it to the ground.The first furrow is filled with earth excavated during the passage of the second groove (2).Earth thrown with a shovel turning, it provides burial annual weeds.Carefully remove the roots of perennial weeds such as couch grass, dandelion, dock, bindweed If part of the roots remain in the ground, weeds will grow.When digging the site, overgrown with grass, shot shovel sod thrown into the furrow and ground there.Then dig the third furrow, turning and throwing the earth in the second (3), etc.When the entire area is dug, the earth excavated during the passage of the first furrow, poured into the last (4).
single storey, or just digging
wide section is usually divided in two and begin the first furrow on one side of the site, leaving the excavated earth at the edge of the second half of the site from the same edge.Earth excavated from the second groove is placed in the first and g d., and the last groove in the second half of the area is filled with soil taken out of the very first slot.Plot section into two halves eliminate the need to move the soil from one end to the other.A more complex and time-consuming method is digging bunk digging.With bunk digging the soil is processed to a depth of two bayonet spades.This technology is particularly effective in the virgin lands and the presence of a solid subsoil, drainage and impedes the development of the root system of plants.At one end of the area dig a furrow width of 60 cm and a depth of bayonet spade, as in the single-tiered digging (1).The chosen land was placed along the place where the last furrow is held.Removing soil from the first furrow, her bottom loosen the full length of the garden fork tines.Pitchfork is embedded in the bottom layer of the soil manure or scatter on top of the organic matter.
loosen base furrows poured soil from her next furrow, as in the case of single-tier digging (3).At the same time it needs to turn the land and remove the roots of perennial weeds.The transfer layer of soil 60 cm wide at the first furrow creates the following groove, the bottom of which also loosen forks.All this is repeated as long as the site will not be dug to a depth of 50 cm. This method improves friability digging soil without moving it to the surface,
nutrient whereas the upper layer approaching the young growing plant roots.A wide section is divided into two halves, as in the case of single-tier digging.A special way to digging considered digging forks. rocky and heavy clay soils is difficult to handle a shovel.Instead, use a pitchfork - an indispensable tool for loosening the bottom of the furrow with a bunk and digging Plantage.Working with forks at all stages of digging is not justified, since they are not completely cut surface of the soil of weeds and also particles of light soil slip freely between the teeth.However, the forks are successfully used for the cultivation of the soil among the growing plants and spring for chopping large clumps of excavated soil and weathered for winter.
digging technique. digging - it is a kind of art, which can only master in practice.However, there are some rules that allow not to make digging in the tedious work,
shovel should be kept upright, angled position does not provide the necessary depth digging.Stick a shovel perpendicular groove to facilitate the separation of the coma of the occupied land and to raise it in its entirety.It is easier to work with non-overloaded shovel - to remove small lumps of earth, but more often.
advisable to dig a little, but regularly.It is best to handle meter strip of soil every day, than to seek to dig the whole lot at once.
should dig the ground when it is easy to process, and not when it is covered with snow, cold or excessively hydrated.
obligatory step is leveling, which refers to the surface treatment of the soil.It is produced when the spring is usually processed using a rake.When the soil has dried sufficiently, it is necessary to align the surface to reduce the evaporation of water, received with the spring snowmelt.To do this, divide the left from autumn clods of earth and spread evenly with a rake the entire volume of soil on the site, at the same time you can sprinkle fertilizer and zaravnivat them with earth.Rake with a constant force, smooth continuous motion drive back and forth, making sure that the teeth on the sliding surface of the soil, not digging it.Pre-dug soil leveled
reciprocating movements of the rake, first in one direction and then in the perpendicular direction.Rake usually slightly buried seeds after sowing, the soil is displaced into the furrows, gather at the site leaves, dry grass, mulch last year, any debris.