Protection against botrytis berries
When growing strawberries in some years botrytis berries defeat could lead to the loss of up to 70% of the crop.
reduce the loss of berries from botrytis can only set of measures:
1. Planting on ungelled scheme (no more than 6-7 plants per 1 m2), then the berries will be illuminated by the sun and ventilated.
2. Moderate fertilizer plants in order to avoid their "fattening" when the image of a huge leaf apparatus, usually at the expense of fruiting.
3. Early spring raking and removing dry dead leaves, the source of infection.Normally dry leaves less to those plants which have been chamfered after harvest.The newly regrown leaves less affected diseases, and come out of hibernation green.
4. Mulching protects the berries from pollution and damage.Mulch can be a dark film and non-woven fabric, straw, sawdust, pine needles, hay, moss, roofing, wooden boards, etc.
5. Installation of supports (from wire, plastics, etc.) for holding a flower stalks in their inclined position, they do not touch the grou
6. Partial mowing the leaves (can be up to one third or half), especially on the edges of flower stalks closing number, also provide access to light berries.It is also possible to connect the leaves in small bundles soft wire so as to improve ventilation landings.
7. Frequent picking berries.Every day or damaged berries in a separate container from the need to make the site and dig the pit.With a strong outbreak of botrytis advisable to collect the so-called 'white' berries that can be successfully used in the processing.
8. Spraying plants with 0.2% benlatom (fundazol) during the period of extension stems and early flowering.
9. unusual advice. Removing flower petals (source of infection).Reception time-consuming, but highly effective and can be performed with a small number of plants.
10. Finally, growing under a light film.This technique ensures minimum loss of berries botrytis due to increased air temperature under the shelter of a film.In addition, it accelerated for 10-14 days to obtain the first berries while increasing productivity.For this purpose, it is advisable to use the plantation of strawberry compact film tunnels.
Covering plants of strawberry film is recommended at the earliest as the air temperature is above 5 ° C (in the conditions of the Moscow area - the end of March - beginning of April).At first, the need to monitor the integrity of hiding.Subsequently look to it that the temperature under the film did not exceed 25-30 ° C.
During flowering (when the outside air temperature is not lower than 5 ° C) is necessary to ventilate the shelter for better pollination.
This film is raised at the sides.If there is no danger of freezing nights and the weather is warm, then the time of flowering can be at night to leave the tunnel open.
berries in a period of growth over the film keeping plants without raising it.When the berries begin to ripen, you can remove the cover completely.In exceptional cases, when at this time is a severe drought, the film is left to the end of fees.Greatly simplifies care of plants under the hoods use a perforated film.In this case, there is no need to remove or lift the film from the carcases during flowering.For perforation need to have on each meter of the film to 40 holes with a diameter of 25 mm.
Accelerate the development of strawberry plants for 5-7 days, you can also use the frameless shelter beds light nonwoven material.At the same time it should be noted that for the period of flowering plants cover should be removed.The non-woven material, not to be blown away by the wind, can be fixed on the basis of water-filled plastic bottles.
When growing strawberries under film can be grown as conventional varieties of strawberries, as well as remontant.Feature remontant varieties of strawberries - their early appearance of fruit and flowers with the ability to form long summer (14-17 h) photoperiod and high temperature (15 ° C).Therefore, these kinds of inflorescences develop for 2-3 weeks, and plants can bloom and bear fruit up to 3-4 months in the season (continuously or waves).
first harvest of these varieties of strawberries (June-July), as a rule, will be only 10-30%, autumn (August-September) - more abundant.However, in the middle zone of many berries do not have time to ripen and fall under the early frosts.In this connection, it is advisable to:
1. Accelerate the start of the growing season by covering the plants in early spring (early April) bright film.
2. Carry out mowing the aerial parts of the plants immediately after collection of the first (summer) crop.This technique will allow to have a distinct autumn fruiting, as well as strengthen the re-formation of stems.
3. hide the plants in the autumn light film in order to allow the maximum number of berries ripen.
number of large-fruited varieties remontant (Ostara, Humm Ghent, Tristar, Tribute, Kletterstar) have one feature: they continually bear fruit not only in the parent plants, but also to form a rosette of whiskers.Therefore, these kinds of shrubs should be planted in a container and place in the kakih-libo stands in tiers in height by 70-80 sm. mustache hanging down, you can create a continuous vertical wall, decorate the gazebo, shed or other place, constantly give the fresh strawberries.Some authors call such varieties of strawberries "curly", offering as another way to create a vertical wall, namely, tying whiskers from growing on the soil of the plants to a special trellis.
One of the most successful designs for vertical strawberry culture
By poluremontantnym varieties should include grades Talisman Redgontlit, Surprise Gall, Zeng Zengana.They can also give a second harvest on axillary peduncles.However, autumn fruiting does not happen every year, but when spring is cool and protracted.This is due to the fact that axillary peduncles successfully formed at first bloom at low temperatures (not higher than 15 ° C) and short photoperiod (no more than 10 hours).Re-bloom and it promotes the removal of leaves after the first fruiting.
short daylight hours can be created artificially by covering the plants with opaque material on a daily basis from 17 to 18 hours for at least 20 days.Just as in the cultivation of remontant varieties, it will be justified autumn plant light cover film for ripening berries.
conventional varieties of strawberries, as well as remontant and poluremontantnye can be cultivated as a "vertical" culture in tanks, which saves labor and plant.