solely on the degree of importance and beneficial effects on the soil agro-technical measures is mulching.By mulching the soil surface coating understand different with organic materials
mi.In nature, uncoated soil condition is abnormal, as in all natural areas (forest, field, meadow, steppe, etc.) soil overgrown with typical vegetation of the zone, which otmiraya autumn, forming vegetation.Therefore, mulching the soil in the garden area, we only return to its natural state.Mulching provides comprehensive beneficial effects on soil, part of which is a fertilizer and improve soil structure.The mechanism of this process is based on the phenomenon of humification of organic materials used for mulching.Immediately it layer by layer decomposition begins after covering mulch material of the soil, while the top layer acts as a protective, taking care of all the external influences of the environment and keeping unchanged the structure of the blended mass mate Sravniteyany analysis mulch and nemulchirovannoy
1. mulch cover protects the soil from overheating and hard penetration of solar radiation, and the moisture evaporates slightly, allowing you to maintain a constant water balance in the soil.All of these conditions promote the vital activity of soil microorganisms, which in turn contribute to the decomposition of organic material and is provided with a cover mulch soil nutrients.This improves the quality of the soil and helps to create its lumpy structure.
2. Lack of mulch cover makes the soil vulnerable to the actions of the hard sunlight, increased evaporation of moisture, there is the danger of drying out, which significantly inhibits the growth of plants.The lack of a balanced moisture and differences of daytime and nighttime temperatures adversely affect the vital functions of soil microfauna.Supply of soil, plant roots and microorganisms with oxygen hampered by the emergence of a dense crust on the soil surface.The so-called "concrete" soil erosion occurs as a result of precipitation of particles of clay soil, which dries under direct sunlight, swim and solidify in the form of a dense shell
Advantages of mulching
organic materials mulch cover protects the soil from natural erosion.The physical effects of wind causes soil drying, weathering minerals, the formation of cracks and dry crust on the soil surface.The sun's rays cause excessive heating of the soil, the accumulation of solar radiation, draining its upper layer and crust formation.Rain washes away the surface of the particle, the most fertile soil layer, breaks its integrity, lingering rain on heavy soils can cause congestion.Mulch cover can significantly reduce or eliminate the harmful effects of these natural phenomena.
Protective cover ensures a uniform soil moisture and maintains a constant water balance due to a significant decrease in the evaporation of moisture from the soil surface.
Airbag, created between soil and mulch cover, supports thermal balance of the soil, protecting it from overheating or, on the contrary, the impact of frost, which positively affects the development of soil microflora.In addition, this layer softens differences of daytime and nighttime temperatures.
Due to constant mulching amount of fertilizer can reduce soil surface as a mulch layer in the presence of their leaching is reduced significantly.
rial.The upper layer of mulch thus slightly degraded.On the contrary, having direct contact with the lower layer of mulch the soil temperature rises, it activates the vital activity of soil microorganisms and the decomposition process begins.Gradually active decay extends to the upper layers of mulch, signs are emerging that the hollow space and loose structure.Thus, thanks to the activity of microorganisms, it is possible the conversion of organic substances in mineral form available for plant nutrition, soil is enriched with nutrients and humidified products mulch layer disintegration.Although discussed primarily mulching with organic materials, it is also worth noting that the coverage of the soil with special mulch also well proven in practice. Black opaque mulchplenka significantly inhibits the growth of weeds due to the limited access of light, accelerates the heating of the soil sunlight, protects
P mulch layer creates a very favorable environment for life activity of soil microorganisms, which activates the decomposition of organic material mulch cover and accelerates the process of nutrient mineralizationsubstances, improves the absorption of nutrients by plants.
Decomposition of organic mulchmateriala takes place directly on the ground, so do not waste valuable intermediate decomposition products: carbon dioxide, biocatalysts, inhibitors, which also favorably impact on the biological activity of the soil.
soil by decomposition of mulch material constantly has a soft dosage feeding nutrients.
coated with organic materials, the soil warms up faster in spring.
** coated with organic materials soil is significantly less caking and sealed and therefore is in the process of readiness.
mulch cover makes it unnecessary to periodically loosening the soil, as the roots of the plants are already well supplied with oxygen due to the lack of soil compaction.This makes it possible to avoid mechanical damage to the delicate surface roots of crops, which is inevitable when loosening.
- mulch cover suppresses weed growth and development, and facilitates the removal process has grown, reducing weeds caused by competition for water and nutrients.
soil from the night cooling, especially during the cool spring nights.In addition, black mulching film has a high ability to vlagonakopleniyu.The water, rising from the soil strata by thin capillaries, does not evaporate from the soil surface, and condenses on the film and is available Mulching in regulating the thermal regime of the soil
From the color of the soil depends largely on its ability to absorb and retain heat from the sun, so by changing thecoloring soil surface, it is possible to adjust the thermal properties.An important role in the regulation of thermal regime of the soil plays a mulching.Dark mulch applied to the soil surface, attracts the sun's rays, and quickly absorbs heat, which contributes to a good heating of the soil, the rapid melting of snow in spring.Light mulch, on the contrary, increases the ability of the soil surface to reflect the sun's rays, which prevents overheating of the soil under the mulch cover, and thus safeguard the roots of plants from adverse effects of high temperatures.
mulch layer protects the soil from breaking when hit raindrops.Uncovered soil dries in the sun and becomes brittle as a result of evaporation of its solid particles remain unconnected between
themselves.Large drops of rain, reaching a diameter of 7 mm, hit the ground, bounce a rate of 8 m / s, breaking the soil, disrupting the integrity of the topsoil and leaving deepening
Soil Surface mulch layer has many advantages: faster soil warming and significantlydecreases evaporation.The water flows down the slopes of mulch cover and seep to the roots of plants
soil.When the soil gets directly to the depth of the roots of the placement is no risk of rapid leaching of nutrients and a constant humidity of the soil stimulates soil microorganisms
tion plant roots.Thus there is a closed water cycle with little or no loss through evaporation.If the spring pre-film spread out on the ground, with the accumulated snowmelt soil moisture could be used for a long time.Good effect has a coating of black mulch tree trunks of fruit trees and shrubs.Experience has shown that if you do so soon after planting, the survival rate of plants increases.Covering around-trunk circle film is especially true for fruit trees with close to the surface of the roots (plum, cherry), this creates a favorable climate in the upper layer of soil moisture and provides small suction roots.In wet and cold weather during the formation of fruit in strawberry using black film will help to reduce its susceptibility of fungal diseases, and the young lettuce salad protect against rot.Mulching with organic materials in comparison with the film has a number of differences and undeniable advantages, particularly in environmentally friendly farming.
Studies suggest that after several years of mulching the soil volume has to be filled with water and air, is significantly increased, and therefore, improves its air - and water permeability, which are some of the main indicators of soil health.