important event for the preparation of the soil is draining or draining land.This operation is carried out in order to regulate the water regime in the area, removing excess moisture and suitable close to the surface of the groundwater or decrease their level.Draining is carried out by means of a system of open ditches and drains (drains), laid under the ground and is an artificial watercourse.Water from the drainage network is displayed outside the drained area.
The cheapest way of drainage area are open drainage ditches, dug to drain excess water from the cultivated land in the drainage pit,
creek or a nearby pond.Open drainage ditches have a distinct advantage on a flat lowland area where it is difficult to create a certain angle of slope areas (the so-called angle of incidence), required for the outflow of water through drain pipes.Gathered in the open ditches drained excess water from the site enters the header or simply gradually evaporates.
If the terrain is flat or land is situated on a h
Open ditch in a small area it makes sense to dig by hand without the use of heavy equipment, making them a depth of 1-1.3 m. To the wall trenches do not crumble, they need to make an angle of 20-30 °, in the clay soils of the channel walls can be made evensteeper as clay soils less crumble.
Ditches must be maintained in a clean condition, watch that they are not clogged debris and stones, which can delay the flow of water.Ditches must also be periodically cleaned from weeds and undergrowth grow into them.
Open drainage ditches on slopes
In areas with a pronounced slope made open drainage ditches across the slope.One ditch dug on top of it, the second - below, parallel to the first to catch falling water.Both ditches is recommended to connect an additional open pit or underground drainage pipe
water regime in the area can be adjusted by means of open ditches (1), carried out under the pipes underground (2) and underground drains (3 and 4)
drainage area can bealso be carried out using underground drainage
pipes. pipes can be short ceramic, concrete or plastic long, they are placed in the trench for the collection and drainage of excess water.Plastic pipes are flexible enough, so they can bend and give the necessary direction, if necessary.Tubes are placed butt joint, "Christmas tree", that they are tightly adhered to each other but not connected together, the excess water could seep into the clearance between the pipes.The diameter of the central tube should be at least 10 cm diameter side extending to the main, drains - 7-8 cm lateral pipe arrangement relative to the central frequency varies with soil structures.: Heavy clay sections they are placed more frequently at intervals 4-5 m, on the loam with an interval of 7 meters in sandy soil distance between the side tubes can be up to 10-12 m. The side pipe attached to a central angle 60-70 °.This angle must ensure unimpeded flow of water from the lateral pipes in central and then tap it.The trenches for laying pipes dug deeper than 1 m and a width of not more than 0.5 m digging earth desirable topsoil and subsoil, less fertile layers do not stir:. Topsoil is removed and set aside, with soil depth should be selected andadd separately.To provide the desired angle of the natural flow of water need to set a definite bias at which pipe will lie.When the trenches prepared, poured on the bottom of a large gravel, broken or crushed stone kir-
laying of underground drainage pipes
1. trenches for laying drainage pipes dug deeper than 1 meter, creating a need for the currentwater gradient.The side of the trench has a configuration "Christmas Tree" at an angle 60-70 ° with respect to the base.
2. The bottom of the trench is filled gravel layer of 5-7 cm, put the tube again poured gravel to the pipe were placed in a kind of coupling.On top of the gravel layer is partitioned land.
3 - Lateral pipes adjacent to the base, is placed close to her, but not rigidly unifying adjunction.Place seam is covered with tiles, to prevent clogging of the lumen between the pipes falling earth or stones
Peach layer of 5-7 cm, put the pipe, starting at the center, on top of gravel or crushed stone is filled so that the pipe was, as in the clutch.On top pour gravel distribute remove the top layer of earth and leveled.Chosen from a depth of subsurface earth clean.To prevent clogging of soil or rocks the place where the pipe cover handkerchiefs.With the underground drainage system, care must be taken when handling the soil, to monitor the depth of digging and cultivation, so as not to damage the pipes, which can lead to waterlogging of the soil.
In small areas, where there is nowhere to place the open ditches or conduct underground drainage pipe, you can use the so-called brick drainage. To do this through the site dig trench directed to drain the well.The depth of the trench can be in the range from 60 cm to 1 m. Necessary to set bias current contributing water, as in the case of underground drain pipes, otherwise the water will stagnate.Prepared trench half filled with broken bricks and rubble stone, poured from the top layer of gravel or crushed stone, and then covered with soil and leveled.Thus, a trench filled with a porous material through which water can seep into the spaces between the bricks and gravel particles and drain into the drain well.This brick drainage enough to provide effective water drainage from the middle portion sizes.The water coming from the area in the system of open ditches, underground drainage pipes or brick, you need somewhere to take.This can be a stream, a small pond, ravine
" Prepared trench depth not more than 1 m, dug
towards the drain: the well,
fill half broken
bricks or , rubble
stone top fill
gravel and cover layer of earth.
or depression on the ground. But if such a convenient natural sump to drain the water is not necessary to create drain well, connected to the general drainage system. to do this, dig a hole in the average depth of at least 1.5-2 m and a diameter1-2 m. If it is necessary to drain the site of considerable size, the volume of the pit under the drainage well should be increased in proportion to the area of the site, or can not cope well with the number of incoming water in it.In order to strengthen and to prevent fraying of the walls of the drain well, they reinforce the bricks.Do not bind the bricks together with cement mortar to allow water to freely seep through the gaps between the bricks.This will create a more natural flow of water and prevent waterlogging.The well is filled with broken bricks, rubble, or rubble stone so that the space left to the top 40-50 cm. Top to prevent siltation distribute the hygroscopic layer of peat 20-30 cm thick, covered with earth and laid the turf.
Choosing crops and landing site
Selecting a landing site in a narrow and a broad sense of the term, largely determines the development of plants, their capacity for growth, flowering and fruiting.In a broad sense, the landing place of understanding climate the area where the garden is laid.
Climate How to develop a long-term weather conditions is one of the main characteristics of any area.The climate is determined by the amount of solar radiation, the processes of the circulation of air masses, the direction of prevailing winds, the annual average rate of precipitation, the nature of the underlying surface and depends on the latitude and altitude, proximity to the coast, terrain features and the placement area on a hill or in a valley.During the year, in a certain region are formed constantly repeated averages of air and soil temperature, atmospheric pressure, duration of sun exposure, add up the prevailing wind direction, and the full range of these indicators with any degree of accuracy is repeated year after year.From the above indicators of climate depends growing season plants.Under the vegetation period means the period of the year during which the meteorological conditions can process the growing season.In temperate climates the vegetation period roughly corresponds to the length of time from the last spring before the first pre-winter severe frosts.For the vitality and development of plants in a particular area is necessary, to its life cycle has been agreed with the periodic change of climatic phenomena observed there.The plant survives and develops in a particular place only if it is used the growing season all the way from spring to autumn, the climate without the risk of damage to the plants when the inevitable onset of the cold period.Thus, rhythm of the vegetation should be coordinated with the rhythm of climate.If the discrepancy is observed plants growing rhythm with the change of climatic conditions during the season, it suffers, is lagging behind in development, it does not realize its capabilities, for example, no flowers or fruits and may eventually die.When plants are transferred to it is not suitable for the climate there is a discrepancy between its growing rhythm of the climate, it gets under way too late in the growth is slow, unable to get stronger, damaged the first frosts.Or, on the contrary, the plant prematurely entering into a phase of growth and exposed to late spring frosts, early growing season in early before there comes the end of the development process and the plant does not fully utilize climate favorable time.The decisive role for determining the suitability of plants for a particular locality plays duration of the growing season in these climatic conditions.The duration of the growing season is defined as the number of days per year at a temperature above 5 ° C, i.e. the temperature that is considered effective for plant growth.In Russia emit different climatic zones, from those where the growing season is 150 days a year, and less so where the growth of plants occurs constantly. in areas with short vegetation period growth rate is a key determinant of adverse ruggedness.Plants should finish his one-year development cycle at an optimum temperature.Therefore, in these areas grow varieties of vegetable and fruit crops, characterized by short-term maturing, late flowering and early fruiting .At the same time, when cultured, for example, fruit trees, which in winter is characterized by a period of rest, in areas with a long period of growing plants observed year-round growth, which impairs the quality of fruiting.
course, plants have the internal resources to enable them to adapt to environmental conditions.The so-called phytohormones act as intermediaries between genetically fixed functional program plants and climatic factors, they help the plant to adapt to the environmental conditions, coordinating its vital functions (growth and development, absorption of nutrients, water exchange) in accordance with unfavorable forplants to climatic factors.However, such a device plants in unacceptable conditions for environmental protection has always a negative impact on its growth and fruiting, not even dying, the plant plays in development.
About plants that will grow in certain climates, they say that they are resistant to adverse conditions of the area.Winter hardiness depends on the hardiness and adaptation to the existing seasonal change of weather conditions.Thus, plants, winter-hardy in subtropical areas are not established in the more northern latitudes and therefore need protection.In contrast, sub-arctic plants, accustomed to a short growing season and long dormancy state, will not be able to grow in hot areas.
There are three main kinds of climate: maritime, continental and temperate. sea climate observed on land, around the seas and oceans, and is characterized by high humidity, a lot of precipitation, annual low and low daily temperature variability indicators.In regions with a maritime climate is not observed extreme temperature conditions, the summer is hot, but high summer temperatures softened humidity and abundant rainfall, warm winters, the transition between seasons smoothed. continental climate dominates the inland areas of the mainland in the distance from the seas and oceans, where there is a predominance of air masses of continental origin and in contrast to the Sea is characterized by sharp temperature display changes in the course of the year, significant daily fluctuations in temperature, low humidity, a small amountprecipitation and generally the instability and variability of these parameters.The change of seasons is usually quite sharp, frosty winters with low air pressure, summer is hot and often dry. temperate climate is a transitional type between maritime and continental climate, without extreme performance of the latter and is characterized by a clear seasonal rhythm parameters temperature, average humidity, soft enough seasons, mild winters and cool summers.
Within each of the major types of climate, there are more transient regional or local climate variations.For example, the height above sea level and the topography may determine local climatic differences, which can be quite substantial.The main factor mitigating climate is the proximity to the coast areas.Compared to the continental coastal warmer in winter and cooler in summer.In mountainous areas is typically have lower temperature and significant precipitation.Sometimes there are areas on the lee side or protected from the rain elevation where there is little rain.The leeward side is usually located to the east of the hill, serving obstacle to the prevailing westerly winds.Altitude above sea level plays an important role in the formation of climate.The higher the position, the soil is colder.With every rise 75 m above sea level temperature is decreased on average by 0,6 ° C.In the summer, this factor is not significant, but in the spring leads to the later beginning of the growing season.The special climatic zones that are experiencing particularly good combination of temperature indicators, humidity, prevailing winds are, for example, the area suitable for wine growing and cultivation of other crops with special requirements.