Formation garden microclimate

August 12, 2017 17:52 | General Information About Plants

process of forming the microclimate in the garden area begins with the thoughtful arrangement of objects located on it, network settings, fruit trees, shrubs and other crops on the surface area in view of sun and shade.The very location of the site on the ground with a certain relief effect on the distribution of sunlit and shaded areas on the site that largely determines the types of cultivated plants.The greatest amount of light and heat necessary for southern slope surface portion as the soil surface is at right angles of incidence of sunlight.Plain or located on the slopes of the other portion is illuminated by the sun at a more acute angle and therefore receives the light and the heat is not so intense and in a shorter period of time.The area shaded by trees and buildings, cooler and therefore less suitable for plants that require sufficient light is ideal for plants adapted to such conditions.The northern side of the site receive less light than the south, while the eastern and western fully illumi

nated by the sun about half a day.

protection from the wind landings

Faced with an impenetrable fence, air flows form the strong turbulence that can damage crops planting.

Permeable for movement of air masses hedges reduce wind speed and weaken its influence on culture

Dense plantings of trees and shrubs are able to stop the movement of cold air masses

cold air rushes down the slope and accumulates in the valley

On a flat surface portion of the preferred placement direction - north-south. house in the northern part of the site to protect it from the wind, sun-lit wall is heated, and the plants planted at the walls of the house, get them from the heat reflected the sun's rays and reliable protection against frost, sunny southern part of the site remains free for planting different crops.Location in the sun is probably the main condition for placing the garden.Almost all kinds of vegetables are very responsive to the sun's rays, the more time during the day the sun illuminates them, the greater the yield, better and more fragrant fruit, the lower the nitrate content in them and up to the storage capacity.This also applies to aromatic plants and herbs that are brought forth in the shaded areas are losing their spicy flavor and quality by reducing the content of essential oils.When you place the garden on the hillside it is a perfect southern and south-western side, where the intensity of sun exposure is extremely high.However, the drying effects of the sun is necessary to compensate for the abundant and regular watering.

Soil type at the site and ways of cultivation are also important in the process of creating the garden microclimate.During the day, the soil accumulates heat from the sun, and then usually gives it at night when the air is cooled.Thus, the soil acts as a battery of heat, and the heat that it radiates at night, protects plants from frost.

Soils differ in their ability to dissipate heat accumulated during the day.Clay soil is slowly heated, but retains heat for a long time.Sandy soils absorb and

Selection of the landing site, the error in the placement and methods of compensation

Factor

consequences oshioki in placing cultures

methods compensation

illumination

lack of light

Observe requirements plants to the extent

leaves brighten acquire nevyrazi-

no illumination, ensure thatto

tional color, sometimes can lose

growing alongside plants are not overshadowed

coloration, it slows down the process developed

his

,

plant development, all its parts are shrinking,

stems stretch and become brittle, reduced aroma plants

excess sunlight

Observe requirements plants to the extent

Leaves get brown hue, edge

no-light, pick a suitable

lamina are turned and

ing plant species, if necessary

curl, dry leaves and opada-

provide shading

are.In shade-tolerant and shade-

-

plants an overabundance of direct solar

GOVERNMENTAL rays leads to the emergence of zabo-

eases

temperature

Needless to low or high

Choose plants for space, respectively

Redness, folding leaves, de

sponding to its requirements to the temperature

formation and cracking sheet

-temperature regime, opt for low-

plate, yellowing leaves.The occurrence

cold-temperature zones distributed

novena chlorosis possible in both case

plants are

i

teas.Especially dangerous extreme

low temperatures at the stage of vegetation

plants such as spring frosts.

As a result of frosts affected plant tissue, which soften, podgni-

vayut, plant stems are broken, and on line

styah appear watery peeling tissue

Impact

Many plants can not tolerate wind

Carefully choose a landing site,Particular

atmospheric phenomena

or constant swirl the air stream

particularly for delicate plants in windy

ha arising from certain

places to plant only strong distribution

tion provisions of the buildings, the specifics

plants are able to withstand wind, in

landscape or its dominant roses-

generally avoided such places while landing

ters.This leads to drying distribution

vegetable and flower crops

substituti- plant tissue desiccation and

.

clot leaves, total inhibition in the development, rapid freezing during cold periods

Water

Excess moisture

monitor the level of soil moisture,

and water regime

yellowing and wilting of leaves, stems

take into account the requirements of the plants, do

become watery with signs

drainage layerplants subjected

decay, plant tissue razmyagchayut-

conjugated rapid root rot

camping, there is root rot and root necks of the plants, the whole plantand parts thereof die

system

Lack of moisture

Drying leaves, yellowing

Regular and uniform watering

and subsidence,general wilting of plants,

chlorosis, drying flowers, fruits underdevelopment

transfer heat faster.Heavy soil is more effective radiator heat than soil with well-cultivated surface.It serves as a screen preventing the heat radiation that poses a threat to plant subfreezing.The walls of the buildings and fences absorb and give off heat as well as the soil.This is one of the reasons lush growths beneath delicate plants.In a certain area such heat-loving

plants can be successfully grown in sheltered places walls.A major factor in the atmospheric effects on planting is a breeze.An important role in the creation of the garden microclimate plays windshield. With strong influence of wind plants evaporate moisture rapidly and can wilt from lack of water, in addition, they are subjected to mechanical damage.This applies not only to

gentle and ornamental crops: apples, even on intense subsidence may occur as a result of the fruits of the impact of strong winds.

for wind protection should be to create artificial or natural barriers, which can serve as hedges and hedges, largely shaping the garden microclimate.Impenetrable fences made of wood or stone to limit the movement of air in the garden and "extinguish" the wind, but strong air currents collide with the barrier, tend to bypass it and form a strong air turbulence.This is due to the fact that an impenetrable barrier causes a sharp rise in the air stream and then its decline almost immediately behind an obstacle, as a result of having a destructive force gusts and turbulence.These air funnels can further damage placed behind the fence culture.Therefore, do not do continuous wind-proof construction, as the wind can not be stopped - his energy has to be dissipated.

much better protection from the wind semipermeable hedges: they facilitate the circulation of air in the garden, garden enhance ventilation, reduce the power of the wind and air pressure on the surface of the soil.The air masses pass freely through the transparent hedge, while losing speed and power.Permeable hedge reduces the force of the wind without creating air turbulence and effectively dampens the wind speed at a distance in relation to its height as 1:10.So, windbreaks of poplars 15m height protects the land at a distance of up to 150 m downwind.Planting trees in the prevailing wind direction may contribute to the tunnel effect, so to mitigate the wind forces them, if possible, should be placed perpendicular to the flow.For optimal results, the weakening of the natural flow of air can be adjusted by the height of the fence.The movement of air in the garden is also recommended to adjust the special plantings.For beds with vegetables can be protected, if necessary, from the wind shrubs, perennials powerful, espaliers.The total lack of wind and the movement of air masses in the area affected at least in the negative.In a windless place easily spread fungal disease, quickly grabbing a significant space and affecting a large number of plants.After the rain or even heavy dew under the influence of solar rays

moisture begins to evaporate, creating a stifling wet environment, it is extremely favorable for the development of pathogens.The lack of wind makes the soil drying process is lengthy and stagnant.

On this basis, it can be argued that the most favorable is the position of beds or other forms of plantations across the prevailing wind direction in the area, protected by its excessive exposure.In addition, the wind plays an important role in the distribution of precipitation, and often land on the leeward side at the bottom of fences or trees remains dry - most precipitation wind relates further.The soil near the fence, is located in the north and east of the site, it remains dry because of the small loss there is rain, and to the south and west are always dry due to excessive solar heat.It is also important to take into account movement of air masses in gardens, located on the slopes and in the lowlands.Broken atop hillside gardens are always exposed to strong winds that change direction and protect them is much more difficult than on flat terrain.A possible solution could be to increase the height of the hedge around the plot or planting trees on the powerful ways of the dominant wind direction.The gardens in the valleys, on the other hand, may suffer from a lack of intensity of air movement, lack ventilated bridge and some stagnation.One of the main problems is low-lying gardens freezing due to the accumulation of cold air in natural hollows in which they are located.Cold air is heavier than warm, so he tends down the inclinations of the terrain and is deposited in the lowlands, forming a so-called cold air lakes.This phenomenon poses a threat to planting crops, as due to lack of wind cold air masses permanently linger in the lowlands, and can provoke even frost on the ground.The cold air, like water, tends to occupy the lowest level, so the surface of the soil at the foot of the slope is more susceptible to frost than located above.Do not put delicate plants, especially fruit trees are sensitive to frost during flowering, in place of a possible concentration of cold air.

If the site is located in the valley or at the foot of the hill, the accumulation of cold air can be prevented by placing in the path of its movement dense stands tall shrubs or trees with spreading crown.

When choosing a landing place of various cultures in the area is important to consider their requirements for the degree sunlight.

For this plan to be the ratio of shaded and sunlit places in the area, artificial shade for shade-tolerant and shade-plants can be created with the crown of the tree, espalier or of garden buildings.Planting such major forms of vegetation, like trees, keep in mind that they will grow and will cast a wide shadow that in the future may not be desirable, so when planting trees this point, as far as possible be provided in advance.Optimum use of sunlight involves not only the rational distribution of plants on land area in accordance with their requirements, but also the proper selection of plants on the number and size, which they reach in adulthood.It is very important to have grown plants do not compete with each other, do not shade each landing and could fully develop.Thus, the area determines the number and type of crop.Plants should be placed on the site, alternating high and low planting sunlight to penetrate in any corner of the garden and were not created deliberately shady and cool place.