Preparation of the soil for strawberries
For strawberry with shallow root system is one of the conditions for obtaining high yields is the cultivation of the soil before planting.Growing strawberries in one place for 3-4 years entails a rather high annual removal of biological nutrients: nitrogen - 13.1 g, phosphorus - 6.2 g and potassium - 18.2 g of 1 m2.The main part of them is in plants, less is removed with the harvest, mustache and dead leaves.
Maintaining a positive balance of nutrients in the soil can be provided only cultivated soils high in organic matter and good agrophysical properties.That is why good preparation of the soil for planting strawberries has the highest value of all the technical measures for effective cultivation of strawberries.It includes lime, site clean from weeds, making major fertilizer and plowing the soil.
Sorrel horse - an indicator of acid soils
Liming the soil. Sod-podzolic soils, occupying a vast territory in Russia, in most cases, have high acidity, detrimental effect on the growth and development of
soil with lime to eliminate excessive acidity.Lime neutralizing excess acidity with it improves the physical properties of the soil, iemaking her loose more heat capacity and moisture capacity, and indirectly contributes to the accumulation in it of nitrogen and phosphorus in plant-available form.Observations
found that is capable of producing strawberry high yields over a wide pH range.
Liming the soil under the strawberries should only be carried out at a pH below 5.
However, liming need not all sod-podzolic soils.On the need for liming the soil can be judged by the natural vegetation growing on it.In particular, the characteristic feature of the soil that has too much acidity and require liming, is the presence of horsetail hair grass, moss and sorrel spergula.To address the need for liming one or the other area, it is better to hold a special chemical analysis of soil acidity, which makes it possible to establish, in addition, the lime and the application rate.As a material for liming acid soils usually use ground limestone, burnt lime, lime powder lime, tufa, marl, dolomite.If the laboratory analysis on the acidity of conduct is not possible, then you need to keep in mind that heavy clay soils require a large dose of lime than light sandy loam, at the same acidity.
limed lot better in advance (for 2-3 years before planting), mix well to lime with the soil and reduce its acidity.To reduce acidity strawberries under appropriate to use dolomite (dolomite flour) at a dose of about 400-600 g per 1 m2.Dolomite is also a source of magnesium in acidic soils.
sorrel - light acidic soils
Horsetail - acid soil indicator
In preparation for planting of strawberry land should be cleared of weeds.Trudnoiskorenyaemymi most of them are perennial: couch grass, bindweed field, sow thistle yellow and pink.In recent years, in the fields of strawberry crop rotation are widely used herbicide.However, in amateur gardening to maintain the ecological area is best done by hand weeding and rhizomes sampled in previous years before planting.
Adding basic fertilizer.The focus is on filling the soil with high doses of organic and mineral fertilizers before planting.
In preparing the soil for each 1 m2 is made of 5-6 kg of organic fertilizer (rotted manure, compost, peat compost).In the absence of organic fertilizers, you can make digging in the old hay Sodom in the amount of 5-6 kg per 1 m2, or mown and chopped green mass of lupine, oats, canola, mustard or other green manure crops in the amount of 15-18 kg per 1 m2.At the same time contribute 50 g of simple superphosphate and 20 g of potassium chloride.Approximately half of the fertilizer evenly dispersed on the site and start digging or shtykovke land to a depth of 35-40 cm. Along the way, while digging the land is cleared of roots and weeds.In places where a lot of the May beetle, the main consideration when digging the soil should be paid to thorough soil release from its larvae and pupae.The second half of the fertilizer is made after digging and buried to a depth of 10-12 cm
is difficult to eradicate weed -. Quack grass
is difficult to eradicate weed - field bindweed
digging site, as well as the pre-fertilizer should be carried out in the autumn before the frostthat the land could well be frozen during the winter.If for some reason or other digging is carried out in the spring, it still must dig the ground for a short time (about a month) to leave alone to loose some ground has settled.If you start to planting in late summer, it can be planted immediately after the digging, because the soil more friable and plants to make better and faster.If by strawberries occupy new land, where there is grass, the ground is prepared for the year, well loosened and planted one season vegetable and green manure crops (lupine, mustard).
In order to create favorable for strawberry plants water-air regime of the soil should be deep pre-plant without its removal on the surface of nutrient-poor soil horizons agents.
Strawberries is not recommended to be planted in freshly prepared soil, since settling its roots seedlings become bare.It is necessary that the site was no ridges and valleys are well aligned.Therefore, before planting the soil carefully cut up the rake, making the surface of 300-400 g per 1 m2 of NPK and press wheels.
gardeners as an organic fertilizer can be used prefabricated compost.To make use of their turf, all kinds of vegetable waste (weed out the weeds, fallen leaves, the tops of vegetables and potatoes, turf, etc.) And feces.Mortgage compost piles in land 1.5-2 m wide. At first poured 15-20-cm layer of peat, and it put layers of 20-30 cm plant material, which is moistened with a solution of sewage, slurry or water.On top of a pile of peat cover.Compost should regularly moisturize.The temperature in the compost in the first 5-6 days after the tab rises to 60 ° C, which provides decontamination from faeces helminth and other human pathogens.After 2-2.5 months perelapachivayut compost and add to it 1.5% superphosphate about the weight of compost.In the autumn of finished compost, which is relatively homogeneous mass, can be applied to the soil.
value of any compost as an organic fertilizer is very high, it is quite a good substitute for manure, with the addition of fertilizer or ash - even more valuable manure.
Phosphate and potash fertilizers can be replaced with ash at the rate of 100-120 g per 1 m2, nitrogen - well-rotted compost torfofekalnym at 10 kg per 1 m2.
very important for strawberries is wood ash.It contains a large number of substances essential for plant nutrition, namely 8-13% potassium oxide, 8.3% of phosphoric acid and 30-50% of calcium.The ash should be stored under a roof as potassium salts are readily soluble in water and can be washed away by rain.Make ash can be both before planting and during growth of strawberry in soil applications instead of potash.