Preparation of the inoculum
The main purpose of any kind of preparation for sowing of seeds is to provide timely and amicable shoots, because it affects all further development of plants.For the neutralization of bacteria, fungi,
seed germination Check
1. Read off a certain number of seeds, for the convenience of further calculations is better to take 100.
2. Place the seeds between two layers of wettissue or filter paper and leave
indoors at a temperature of 20 - 25 ° C.3. If the total of at least half of the seeds will give seedlings, seed can be considered suitable for use
viruses and other pathogens that may be present on the surface of or inside the seed, and the prevention of a number of diseases of plants used method etching, which may be dry and wet.To this end, special chemicals, disinfectants are used.When dry etching of a thoroughly mixed with seeds in a tin with a lid, using it as a drum, a pouch or simply from dense tissue.In the wet etching of the dry preparation solution was prepared in a
process of seed germination
to move in the growth of the seed needs water, oxygen and appropriate temperature.Most seeds germinate at a temperature of 18-2.1 ° C.Once the seed will be provided with everything you need, it comes out of dormancy and begins its development.During germination the cotyledons contained in the seed, grow, spreading the seed coat.Sometimes the seed coat is so thick, strong and impenetrable that to speed up the germination of the seed need to damage it, to ensure access of moisture inside the seed.The cotyledons, broke through the skin of the seed, begin to develop and grow.Different plants this process is different.When the underground germination cotyledons stay in the ground, with overground germination they are carried out on the ground.With the development of the plants and the emergence of true leaves cotyledons shrink and die.The first root formed from the seed, called the primary spine and appears before the first escape from the cotyledons.With the emergence of their first true leaves appear, which are not similar to the cotyledons and usually have a completely different shape.Gradually there is a formation of above-ground part and root system of young plants.
To speed up the germination of seeds and reducing the initial growth period is used for machivanie. seed coat of the seed is a good absorbent, it absorbs water necessary for germination of the seed.Sometimes the seed coat is too thick and impenetrable, and to accelerate the germination either need to disturb her, to provide water supply to the seed or to stimulate seed germination by prolonged soaking.Especially effective this method for seed with a dense seed coat and delayed germination, as it allows to significantly accelerate the emergence of seedlings and the introduction of plants in active growth stage.During soaking seed coat absorbs the moisture and the seeds swell, which facilitates the separation of the shell, and they are activated all the processes leading to the growth of the energy of life.Water for soaking temperature should not exceed 25 ° C.The water should be changed, merging gently, at least twice a day.Total seed soaking time varies depending on the type of culture.After the expiration of the soaking water should be drained and the seeds immediately without drying planted in moist soil.
soaking time for the different cultures
peas, beans, lettuce / types of 4-6 hours
cabbage, cucumber, squash, melon 15-20 hours
Flowers / views 12-24 hours
tomato, pepper,eggplant 24-48 hours
Carrots, parsley, celery and 72 hours
Sprouting seeds as well as soaking, can reduce the period of initial growth.In addition, the seeds have a different degree of germination, seeds of non-uniform even within one type of culture, so it is obvious that not all the crop will germinate the seeds sown.Because of this, in the ground, usually sown seeds deliberately exaggerated amount, then the excess seedlings thinned.But it is much more economical and practical germinate the seeds before they reach the ground.This procedure is the preparation of the inoculum carried out in a room with a certain constant level of humidity at a temperature no higher than 25 ° C.To this end, a large container veiled natural fabric, cotton is better, and it abundantly moistened tissue on the surface of the seeds is poured.Top cover with another layer of wet tissue and constantly monitored, so it does not dry out during the germination period.This is the basic condition for strong germs, extremely sensitive to fluctuations in humidity.The seeds begin to germinate in 2-5 days.After two-thirds of the seeds sprout, they are planted in moist soil.There are other ways of seedbed preparation seeds, stimulate them to accelerated and the simultaneous germination: warming - bring the seeds to a certain temperature for a prescribed period of time, prohalazhivanie - ostuzhennoy seeds to a certain temperature for astipulated period of time, drazhirovagshe - coverage seed nutrient mixture that creates a protective shell of the seed increases its size, gives a rounded shape.In the future, after landing in wet soil shell begins to dissolve and stimulates seed germination.
effective and affordable means of seed treatment is the treatment of a very strong solution of potassium permanganate.A good disinfectant action and has an ash infusion is prepared at the rate of 1 tbsp.l.wood ash per 1 liter of water.Flask seeds are immersed in a depth of not more than 2 cm, since the most superficial layer is saturated with oxygen.
most versatile preparations for disinfection and seed treatment are topsin M and 80 % TMTD.The optimum dosage of these drugs is calculated from the ratio of 0.5 g per 100 g of preparation of seeds.
sowing seeds in open ground
sowing in open ground is suitable for the types of crops that do not require pre-grown seedlings do not tolerate transplanting and can be immediately placed on the ever-designated place them on the site. sowing dates are determined depending on the requirements of a particular type of culture, as well as on the basis of the characteristics of the local climatic conditions.Some crops can be sown before winter to spring, they immediately start to grow.And yet, in most cases, sowing is carried out in the spring, the seeds for crops that are resistant to cold, sowing can be carried out immediately after spring tillage, more receptive culture should be sown when the danger has passed the last spring frost. depth incorporation into the soil depends primarily on the size of the seed.The seeds should be covered with earth just long enough so that they had enough sunlight, heat and moisture.In addition, the germ power should be enough to pass through the layer of soil on the surface of the soil.Typically, sealing depth is calculated from the following calculation: the thickness of the ground layer should be twice the diameter of the seed, it is enough to provide the seed moisture and warmth of the sun, and the germ of the energy will be enough to break the surface.
Depending on the structure of the soil varies the depth of seeding.Calculation of embedment depth, based on the diameter of the seed, is justified in the middle of normal soils.On light soils the seeds dry buried deeper, heavy and raw - is smaller.sowing period also affects the depth of seeding.In the spring, when the topsoil is saturated with melt water can wreak smaller seeds summer should be deeper to seal them to fall into the wet layer, as the surface of the soil is already dry.
sowing in open ground is done by hand.Very small crops seeds is recommended to mix with dry fine sand and sow out of the bottle, so that they are evenly distributed on the crop area.When sowing slow germinating seeds is desirable to combine them with planting markers, ie kulmur seeds, seedlings rapidly giving.Sprouted seeds are clearly much earlier sowings will designate the site and will produce weeding between rows.
There are two main ways of sowing seeds in the ground: rows and randomly.Private sowing in open ground is the most common method of placing plants in the garden.For this purpose, the prepared and moistened surface mark out rows of beds and shallow furrow with the help of cord stretched on the pegs.Along the cable are blade hoe or rake to form a groove, and deepen it at the rate of crop requirements for the depth of seeding.At the bottom of the resulting furrows sown the seeds of a rare layer, trying to spread them evenly and covered with a thin layer of soil series using a rake.
spanned by the blade cord pegs carried hoes, making a smooth tapered
groove.At the bottom of the groove sown seeds
and embedded layer of earth
15-2 cm. Seeds
on the surface
distance between rows can vary depending on the characteristics of the growing crop.
When drill seeding rows can be labeled using twine and along the shallow grooves do, using a peg or hoe.The depth of the grooves depends on the size of the seed.
Shuffle sown seeds on lawns, flower meadows, at planting annual flowers and vegetables for subsequent transplantation.When sowing rake performed randomly in the selected direction, making the groove depth of 1.5-2 cm, then scatter the seeds on the surface.After sowing the seeds carefully poured steered rake perpendicular to the grooves made.
/. for planting in open ground soil is prepared with the fall: dig rough, make the necessary fertilizer and mulch the surface nezrelym- foliage or compost.
2. In the spring the soil is necessary to loosen the surface, to keep the soil moisture and add fertilizer.
3. Give the soil to settle for 5-7 days immediately before sowing shallow loosen surface rake.
4. Any instrument done in shallow furrows soil surface, the distance between them depends on the type of culture are seeded.
5 - Spread the seeds on the groove bottom, being careful not to overly thickened seed if the seeds are large, they can be put into the grooves on the necessary for this culture, distance.
6. Then fill the seeds of the earth and trample it lightly.This operation is convenient to carry out the reverse side of the rake.
7. Finally, thoroughly water the crops and ensure that the soil remains moist during germination.Watering is recommended from a watering can or hose with a fine spray, so as not to wash away the seeds
Another way of placing the seeds on the soil surface is female seed.
Many consider it more economical as compared to the ordinary, but it is suitable for certain types of crops.Cluster method is usually sown plants which during the growing season requires considerable space: beans, peas, beans, zucchini and cucumbers.To do this, on the prepared surface of the beds at an equal distance from each other make indentations in which lay a few seeds, asleep their soil and lightly compacted.Once the seedlings appear, the excess plants in the nest removed.When sowing in open ground is very important careful preparation of the soil.This begin to engage in the autumn when digging and produce soil fertilizer.In the spring the soil loosened, thereby destroying the capillaries to retain moisture, soil resulting from the melting of the snow, and make fertilizer.It is important to remember that before planting is necessary to give the soil to settle, to restore hair thicker capillaries in the soil, which supply the plant roots with moisture.Just before planting, the soil should be loosened once again rake to a depth of no more than 2-3 cm.