Vegetative propagation of fruit plants
for fruit plants with high-quality features, vegetative propagation is the only way of reproduction of this progeny.Typically, this method of reproduction properties and characteristics of the mother plant is fully preserved and reproduced, but in some cases may be genetic changes due to the occurrence of mutation events.Kidney or shoots, taken from the mutated part of a plant, give rise to a new clone, so then necessarily carried clone-wai selection.When vegetative propagation of fruit plants can be transmitted viral diseases, so you need to carefully monitor the health of parent plants.In nature cloning it occurs naturally, but in the practice of gardening applied artificial vegetative propagation, which are the main ways cuttings, multiplication by layering, dividing the bush, and vaccination.
Cuttings seen as a way forward vegetative propagation using segments of shoots or cuttings, cut with a healthy plant cultivated species.Cuttings are parts of the vegetative organs of plants and can therefore
1. Late autumn is necessary to cut annual lignified shoots from the lower portion of the mother plant.Each escape divided into cuttings of 15-20 cm in length, making the cut at the bud or above it.The upper section is doing right, bottom oblique, thus indicating the direction of growth.
2. Cuttings tie together, provide the tag with the necessary information and put beveled cuts down on the wet sand or light land substrate.Keep all winter in a cool room.
3. the spring to cut the cuttings will form the root tissue.
4. spring cuttings are planted in open ground and landing bury so above the ground have only two kidneys.5 - Sharing gradually form new roots and gives the first shoots.By the fall it can be considered a full-fledged plant.
6. After that, the stalk must dig, make a balanced crop aboveground part and root and plant to a permanent place.After planting, thoroughly water the
th and touched in growth.In spring cuttings are planted in open ground, and for planting should be prepared loose soil in which the cuttings will take root easily.When planting a sapling deepened so much that on the surface there were only two kidneys.Care of cuttings is to maintain a constant soil moisture needed for the development of the roots, and a shallow hoeing to improve the access of oxygen.Sharing gradually form a strong root system, will get under way in growth and by the autumn develop into strong sustainable plants.After that it can be transferred to a permanent place, but before planting is necessary to produce a balanced crop aboveground part and root system to establish a balance in the energy and nutrients between the cost of the young plant systems.
cuttings propagated many fruit bushes such as currants, gooseberries, barberry, honeysuckle and bramble.The essence of this method lies in the fact that the escape is not separated from the parent plant as long as it does not take root.There are various methods of reproduction layers, and the choice here depends on the type of crop, growth conditions and the desired end result.One of the most common ways of reproduction of berry bushes is a reproduction of the vertical -vodkas, that even got the name of the classic cuttings.In the spring, when the young shoots of shrubs reach the required height, their spud.Land row up to the base of the bush close to the shoots, falling asleep young stems by one third.When the little mound settles opolzet and should fill up the ground, during the growing season this
Reproduction vertical layering
1. Royal plant used for vertical strains.
2. In the spring the young shoots of the mother plants to hill covered with earth by a third.
3. During the growing season to increase
height earthen mound to escape the autumn gave more roots.
4. The following spring shoots peeled separate from the mother plant and plant them on a constant
operation needs to be done several times, gradually increasing the height of the mound.From the ground, bush shoots easily develop adventitious roots and form a multi-tiered root system.The following spring, the land of bushes shovel, carefully separate the shears shoots peeled-cuttings from the mother plant and planted them in a permanent place.For reproduction horizontal layers autumn selected strong young shoots from the lower tier of the mother hive, which will serve as layering, bends them to the ground, fix the wire or wooden pin and lightly sprinkle the ground to escape the place secure.For the formation of adventitious roots and better rooting escape at this point watered throughout the season and watching the constant soil moisture.When the young shoots they need to hill.In the autumn of next year, part of the shoot with the adventitious roots are cut shears and transplanted to a permanent place of it soon develops a new young plant, keeping all the features and qualities of the parent.
great interest is the way of plant propagation air layering. It has been known for many centuries in various parts of the world, where has their names:. Chinese cuttings, Guta, potted cuttings, etc. The essence of this method lies in the fact that the roots of the new young plants formed on the aerial parts of the plant after ringing or splitting of the parent stemplants at a certain angle and wrap wounding place wet substrate for rooting.An indispensable condition for the effectiveness of this method of breeding
/.You must choose a strong well
fruiting shrub, wherein
bright varietal traits
and berry quality.
2. A well-developed young shoot
from the lower tier of the mother bush
bend down to the ground.
3. Secure escape a wooden or wire-rod, so that it lies against
to the ground and straightened.
4. Next autumn rooted escape plot shears cut and transferred to a permanent place
tion - a high level of humidity environment or humidity in the desired rooting.The most common breeding air layering is used in greenhouses, where it is possible to create artificial fog mode.However, some
Propagation Air layering
1. At selected for reproduction escape a sharp knife remove the strip of bark around the circumference width of 1-25 cm. Escape ringed.The surface of the ring and the adjacent 25 cm cortical areas treated with a growth factor.
2. In place ringed impose moist sphagnum moss or substrate nutrient ground.
3. Escape tightly wrapped with plastic film and the ends fastened with rope or duct tape.To escape stood straight, his tie to the next branch
variations of this method is quite useful for the propagation of plants in the open ground in areas with moderate humidity.Cuttings are partially lignified shoots of the previous year, who choose to breed in the spring.In all of the selected escape side branches are cut at a distance of 15-20 cm from the top of the circumferential strip of bark is removed width of 1.5-2.5 cm depending on plant species.On the exposed surface of the entire cambium is removed to slow the healing of wounded area.Ring with removed bark is coated on the upper and lower edge of the growth substances to stimulate rooting directly exposed portion also may be treated with a growth factor.Then the ring is applied a thick layer of moist sphagnum moss or nutrient soil mixture and wrapped tightly with a piece of plastic film so that the mixture of moss or were completely closed.
film coating prevents drying out and support the constant humidity necessary for rooting escape.The abutment sides of the film should be at the lower side of the branch, and the edges are folded and tucked.On both ends of the film sleeve must be tightly tie a rope or duct tape.
In the old days;before the invention of polyethylene film, a constant humidity in the ringed cut on the escape is supported by a cord.
cut imposed on anyone wet clay, wrapped and tied with bast mohrm.Over lumpy placed a container of water, from which descended cord.The lower end of the cord wrapped lump on the cut, and constantly on the cord sochivshayasya water would not let the clay dry out, it was only necessary to top up the water in the vessel.
autumn in place of the annular slice formed root system, and rooting strains can be cut shears and transplanted.The time separating cuttings from the mother plant is determined by the condition of the roots, for the formation of which can be monitored through the transparent film.After separating the cuttings need to make a pruning the aerial part of the new young plants, to bring it in line with the volume of the root system.Rooting strains should be planted in a suitable pot and place it in a cool place with sufficient moisture.Later, when the plant develops a strong root system, it can be moved to the open ground.
alternative ringing escape when propagated by air layering is the splitting of the escape of the stem.To do this, an oblique cut length of 6.5 cm towards the middle of the stem, and then cut to divide the surface with a roller or splinter from sphagnum moss.Then wrap escape moss, nutrient substrate and the film, as described above.
Reproduction division is the simplest way forward vegetative reproduction and those fruit plants whose shoots are easy to give independent roots or rhizomes form, passes virtually painless.For this sprawling mother bush dig out of the ground, separated from his ingrained part of a viable child, which is transplanted to a new location.The division is necessary for several reasons, most important of which are the following: division of the bush is a good and reliable way to get tested planting material and, moreover, gives the uterine bushes incentive to develop and actively shoot formation, that is, for a plant health-improving exercise.
In the case of raspberries, actively forming root suckers, by dividing a certain extent can be considered department offspring from the mother plants and their use as a young planting material.To this end, the young shoots in early spring or autumn - the offspring - dig produce crop aboveground part and transplanted to a permanent place.
Vaccination is a kind of indirect vegetative propagation of fruit trees.The essence of grafting is to combine cutting or bud (eye) of the scion with the stock.As a result of fusion and interpenetration of two different plant tissues, a new species, which in the future will be possible only propagate in a similar way - vaccination.Vaccination handle called kopulirovkoy, for its use of cuttings of the scion, which is cut from the annual shoots of healthy fruit trees cultivated breed, preferably on the south side of the crown, where they are better formed.Shoots more than one year, as well as the so-called water sprouts are not suitable for kopulirovki.Vaccination eye iash kidney called budding. to use it well formed buds: sliced ripe cuttings with healthy strong materinsko-
Reproduction raspberry suckers
1 .The root stalk is a special part of the root system, because it has a vegetative buds, from which develops young shoot, scion.
2. Green offspring can be separated from the mother bush and moved to another location.3 - The annual lignified offspring can also be separated from the mother plant
and used as seed
of plants cultivated breed, best on the south side, then from the middle part of the cutting scion cut most developed kidney-eyes.