Seatings mark pegs, observing the straightness of rows in accordance with the planned schedule.
In the most common in home gardens trellis-private system of keeping grape culture density placement of bushes depends on climatic conditions, bush vigor and accepted the forming.
on marginal lands bushes planted more often, and on rich soils and irrigation - less common.Varieties with greater force growth, should be planted with a large distance between rows and bushes in the ranks and slaboroslye grade - with a smaller distance.In areas with short growing season distance between the bushes set more than in the south;correspondingly more powerful formirovki require large distances.For surface formirovok distance between rows is set lower than for stam.
generalization of the experience allows us to recommend the following planting schemes for different conditions of growing grapes.
1. In conventional vertical trellis: in the northern areas of viticulture - 2,0 x1,0-1,5 m (upwards for strong-growing varie
2. When besedchatoy system: 4,0-6,0 x 2,0-2,5 m
3. To hedge or wall-cultural distance between the bushes 1,0-1,5-2,0. M.
4. When laying the vineyard to the two-plane trellis distance between the bushes in a row is given 1,0 x 1,25 m for low- and sredneroslye bushes and 1,5 x 2,0 m - silnoroslyh.
5. For special trellis systems in rich soil:. 2,0-3,0 x 2,0-3,0 m
In areas with severe winters and deep freezing of the soil, in which there is damping-off holes, planting grapes betterin the spring, when they begin to blossom eyes and danger of spring frosts (it is possible to focus on the long-term meteorological data).In the northern and eastern regions of Russia favorable conditions for planting are formed usually in early May in the southern areas sheltered viticulture - in mid-April, neukryvnyh - in early April.
In areas neukryvnyh and southern areas sheltered viticulture, and in the absence of conditions for storage of planting material can be planted in the fall.The grafted seedlings and cuttings kilchevannye better planted in spring.
Regardless of the area of cultivation should be planted at a depth of 45-50 cm is allowed to less depth -. Up to 30-35 cm in the northern regions, where the soil is covered with snow in winter, as well as heavy, wet, clay soils and in areas with shallow pounderwater.In areas with deep soil freezing recessed landing preserve the root system against low temperatures, and in arid regions - will increase the viability of the bush.
Against preplant fueling poor soil with manure throughout the area in an amount of 10-12 kg per 1 m2 with the addition of 60-100 g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizer in the planting hole additionally make 2-3 kg of humus, 5-7 g of potassium chloride and 10g of ammonium nitrate.This amount of fertilizer is usually sufficient for the first 3-4 years after planting.
hole for planting dig a width of 30-40 cm and a depth of 10-15 cm below the landing level.To prevent the wall of the bottom of the pit is better to use a broom handle at nitrafena solution (200 g per 10 liters of water) or chlorophos (50-60 g per 10 liters of water).Then cook the mixture for filling the holes (if the soil is poor or clay).
Where there is scarcity of water for irrigation, it is advisable to arrange a vertical drainage.At the bottom of the pit is laid gravel or pebbles layer of 15 cm;holes in the wall situated towards the aisle, establish a short tube diameter of about 5 cm above the soil outlet 20 cm. Then pour hole in the ground and 5.7 cm in its center seedling planting conventional manner.
The center holes on pre-made mound establish seedling small, well-spreading root system.Seedling fixed better by using the landing board having a slot in the middle part of the upper part of the seedling, and on each side - for its retention slots by pins.
drainage device: 1 - seedling;2 - pipe
Once the seedling is installed in a hole a few handfuls of the mixture prepared to sleep 15-20 cm and lightly tamped to a layer in the root development was no voids around the seedlings;watered at the rate of 0.5-1 bucket on a hole, depending on the soil moisture.When the water is absorbed, the hole is filled, not highly compacted soil, and further watered (1-1.5 buckets of water).Then the seedling spud at 5-8 cm above the top bud at spring planting and 25-30 cm for autumn.When planting in Case consists or waxing the top of the seedlings hilling may be waived.
Soil mulching with humus, peat litter of straw or manure.This protects it from moisture evaporation creates the best temperature conditions, maintains mounds of weathering and drying.
When planting cuttings or long vine - ring for trudnoukorenyaemyh grades - the width of the pits may be smaller.
In northern top 1-2 buds from non-grafted seedlings or cuttings are placed in the soil to a depth of 5-10 cm, which subsequently facilitates ukryvki bushes for the winter, in other areas - is left at ground level or on a 3-5 cm above.
have grafted seedlings in the more northern areas of the place spikes should be placed at ground level.It can also be located below, but it is well insulated film that did not develop on the roots of the scion.In areas neukryvnoy and culture poluukryvnoy place spikes placed on the 5-10 cm above the soil surface.
skillfully planted and properly placed vines not only provide high yields and good quality grapes, but also serve as a wonderful decoration of villas and gardens.