grape Breeding

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

not easy to get saplings of valuable scarce variety, and then for 3-4 years to wait for a full harvest.

However, the desire and ability of one eye is enough even to the first year of the new varieties have the bush, to get not only the harvest (1-2 bunches), and cuttings for further propagation of the variety.

VACCINATION IN PLACE

vaccination - an operation in which part of the plant artificially transferred to the stem, or trunk of another escape.Part of the grafted plant from which formed the aerial organs of the bush, called the graft, and the part from which the root system develops, - rootstock.

grafting can restore grafted shrub, if he damaged the graft to replace low-value grade more valuable, to grow on a bush or grafted seedlings and cuttings to get vaccinated, to frost bush (in the northern areas), resistance to disease.

in nurseries main mode of production of grafted seedlings a bedroom (desktop) odnoglazkovogo grafting cuttings of the scion on the rootstock cutting standard length.Cutti

ngs of stock and scion are harvested in the fall.After storage and preparation predprivivochnoy cuttings enter the graft workshop where vaccination is carried out.Method of grafting compound components - oblique kopulirovka with tongues.

on the plot on the site of vaccination more accessible and effective than desktop.Ways vaccinated on the spot a few.After vigorous sap flow begin to be vaccinated or vrasschep polurasschep (April - May);at the beginning of lignification of green shoots, ie when previewing white fibers on the cut at the site of inoculation (at the shoot base or above), do grafting woody or green-handle (and eye) on the green shoot;at a later date, even for a month (July - August) can be carried out vaccinated budding vpriklad shield.

Performing vaccinations different methods allows you to stretch the term vaccination campaigns and rational use of all derived from the uterine bushes Cherenkov material.

vaccination Table grapes: 1 - oblique cut on the rootstock;2 - cutting the tongue;3 ... 4 scion and rootstock prepared for grafting;5 - finished vaccine

Long before vaccination should "fill" material on hand, imitating korneshtamb and vine scion.

Vaccination vrasschep or polurasschep carried out after the end of sap flow to the middle of the stable, and in the northern regions before the end of May.

At later stages of grafting the scion shoots did not have time to mature and can be damaged in winter.

1-2 days before vaccination underground trunk bush dig and cut (cut down) 5-10 cm below the soil to reduce the copious sap (sap flow if not intensive, the cut made in the vaccination day).The trunk is cut, so that before the next unit was interstitial about 5-7 cm

Vaccination vrasschep bole bush: and - cuttings, prepared for grafting;.b - vaccine to trim;in - ready vaccination

Dvuhglazkovye scion cuttings taken from storage, cut so that the top was cut above the node 1-2 cm, and under the lower left internode unit length of 6-8 cm Cut the cuttings are soaked in warm water for 12.-18 hours.

The cut stem end trimmed with a knife.Then digested with a chisel to a depth of 2.5-3.0 cm If the trunk is thin, below the cut-off tie with twine to not get a big split.;if the fat - do polurasschep on one or both sides on the largest diameter.

scion of the handle with a sharp knife cut a wedge shaped split the length of 2.5-3 cm. This wedge is inserted into the handle of a splitting or polurasschep so cambial layers of both components coincide inoculations and cut surface of the wedge and split the tight to each other, afterthat the connection and the remaining gap tightly tied with tape and graft spud the ground (the upper end of the graft cuttings should be below the surface of the mound in the 3-4 cm).

In areas neukryvnoy culture the vaccine is fashionable to hold the aerial bole at a height of 50-100 cm. In this case, cuttings or grafting parafiniruyut wear plastic Case consists with a piece of wet cotton wool, which, after the development of eye removed.

Vaccination simple kopulirovkoy green handle: a - the scion;b - stock, prepared for grafting;in - ready vaccination

modification of this method is the inoculation in a wedge-shaped slot, which makes the side of the felled trunk (slot length of 3-4 cm, 0.4-0.8 cm depth).The size of the slot wedge cut on the scion, then it is inserted, and the place tie with vaccinations.This vaccine is more reliable as it reduces the possibility of penetration of pathogenic bacteria in the resulting gap, and it is better to take root.

Vaccination vrasschep spend on green shoots, when the thinner scion rootstock.Grafting components coalesce firmly and do not need to store the cuttings during the winter.

Vaccination ripe cuttings in the green shoot simple kopulirovkoy better manage the second half of May to the second half of June.To this can be vaccinated in advance to get the desired scion varieties and use it after the winter storage.

to vaccination can begin only with a good allocation of sap through sections of shoots held in the vaccination day.If PASOK does not stand out, then for 2-3 days before vaccination is carried out irrigation.Grafting cuttings is better in the morning, in the evening or on cloudy days when there is no heat.When planting in sunny weather, you need to be located on the sunny side of the bush so as to obscure a place of vaccination for prevention of drying sections.

Vaccinations do rootstock on the shoots to a height of 15-20 cm to 150 cm and above.On rootstock bushes pruned when young leave the speck in the eye 2, and adults 2-3 1-2 knot on each eye.

If pereprivivayut fruiting bush, hide for the winter, then leave the speck near the base of the bush and the bush can be cut and a black head.If pereprivivayut Shtambovji bush is cut short vines growing in the upper part of the trunk.

When the green shoots of rootstock reach 15-20 cm fragment of conduct, leaving the best to escape 2-3 to 1-2 besshtambovyh and escape to the bushes stam.A fragment of 1-2 weeks was repeated by removing superfluous shoots.

2-3 days before grafting onto rootstock shoots sharp knife, remove the leaves, antennae, eyes from below and to the vaccination site.As a result, the moisture entering the shoots will be directed to the site of inoculation (wound clogged and PASOK will come to the place of vaccination).If the organs are removed on the day of vaccination, then a fresh wound will be allocated PASOK and to the place of her vaccinations will go much lower because of what the scion can not settle down.

scion cuttings soaked (12-24 h) and cut into odnoglazkovye (upper cut - 1,5 cm, bottom - at 5-7 cm) cuttings;to determine if they live or dead eye, they are kept in a warm room in a wet rag or sawdust 3-4 days.

On rootstock escape a sharp knife make an oblique cut of 2-3 cm long. After that, make a cut on the handle grafting directly under the eye.Both the cutoff should be of uniform thickness and length.Making the cut on the scion and interconnect components necessary when on the surface of the stock will be cut PASOK.Then connect the scion with the stock and firmly tied with the film so as not to displace tissue rootstock and scion (20 x 1 cm size of the film).

grafted rootstock seedlings on the bushes can be obtained by leaving them 5-6 shoots okuchit their land base for the formation of roots and making the vaccination at a height of 50-120 cm. In the autumn they are cut from the bushes.If you do not spud base of the shoots, you can get grafted cuttings.

Vaccination green handle on the green shoot graft rootstock simple kopulirovkoy carried out before the end of June.Once in the heart of the process of escaping suberization and significantly reduce energy escape growth, vaccination stopped.

This method of vaccination is slightly different from the previous one, "but not in the preparation process of the scion.Everything else is doing is similar to the previous method.

With uterine bushes scion shoots are harvested desired diameter and prepared as follows: remove three-quarters of the record sheet, cut tendrils, inflorescences, strongly developed stepchildren, with more than three leaves and remove the top of the grassy part of the shoot.These shoots are placed in a bucket, cover with a damp cloth and is delivered to the site of inoculation.Store them as no more than 2 hours. Then odnoglazkovye cuttings cut as required of the same size as lignified.Green cuttings with well-developed eyes cut from the bottom of the escape, the second half of June graft removing the sheet and stepson.After binding to the vaccine wear a plastic insulator from the bag with a damp cotton wool (12-14 days shoot in cloudy weather).

Odnoglazkovy lignified stalks

Using this method, you can also get grafted plants or grafting.

Green vaccinated budding carried out from mid-June to late July.It is advisable to apply, if the stock is significantly superior to the thickness of the graft, as well as for the grafted cuttings or lateness with kopulirovkoy.With this grafting rootstock eye removed and replaced with the scion of his eye.

first vaccines are at a distance of 60-70 cm from the base of the shoot in order to get a graft seedling or sapling.Each subsequent vaccination do every 50-55 cm, while the diameter of the shoot is reduced to 6 mm.On the escape length of more than 2 m can be 4-5 vaccinations.The best place vaccinations - nodes with a mustache, or a bunch.

autumn shoots are cut into the grafted cuttings to obtain from them later grafted seedlings.To be grafted shrub inoculated leaves on the first node.

before grafting onto rootstock bush remove weak shoots, the remaining tie to the support periodically.With the royal scion of the bush for 1-2 hours before budding cut off escape 3-4 (fertile - above the last bunch, barren - on the third eye from the bottom).Suitable eyes from the 4th to the 15th flight, measured from its base, well-made, formed, with woody covering scales.

immediately removed the leaves, tendrils, stepchildren (left hemp 1-2 buds) and the upper part of the grassy.

Technology sections at the sites of the stock and scion removing boards with the same wintering eye.The length of the boards - 3-3.5 cm, thickness - 2 mm.

On the node where the budding performed, down from the base eye metered 1-1.5 cm incision is made at a depth of no more than 2 mm at an angle of 45 ° to the axis of the shoot.After incision knife bottom is transferred to a 1.5 cm above the eye, set initially at a right angle transversely to escape, light touch and cut the bark of a small portion of the wood, and then slightly bent blade sliding motion of the right and continue in the horizontal cut plane.When approaching the peephole blade slightly lifted, as if imitating the surface of the knee to escape the node.At the same time cut the harder tissue fibrovascular bundles.When the knife is held under the eye, again a slight movement and deepened in a horizontal position is adjusted to the incision made below.Then the flap is separated from escaping;if it was a rootstock, guard thrown if the graft, the thumb of his right hand pressed it to the edge and hold on the knife.Then, from the right hand guard taken in the left, and is inserted into the incision on the rootstock.

cut on the rootstock and scion shields should be the same width, length and thickness.All operations are carried out quickly, to prevent the surface from drying out and cuts pollution.Do not touch the surface of the finger sections.After inserting the panel immediately tied budding film 40-50 microns, cut into 1.5 cm wide and 30 cm tape.

long thick Escape beginning to fasten the bottom.The first round is applied to the base graft panel, and then several turns tightly tied up the entire panel, leaving free only wintering eye.It should be carefully to shield graft lies against the cut on the rootstock and the tape does not hit the base eye, or it is deformed, vypreet perish.Piping finish above the upper edge, where the free end of the tape is fixed by tightening the noose.

After 35-40 days untie the tape.To do this, on the back side of the grafted eye her carefully cut with a knife and tie on vaccination to guide the harvesting of graft cuttings.

Care vaccination is timely garter, removing the insulator, loosening or removing strapping, scion shoots pinched out at a length of 15-20 cm, in the fight against diseases and weeds, creating normal conditions for the growth and development of shrubs.

It is particularly necessary to pay attention to the importance of timely weakening film strapping to avoid plunging it into the graft tissue.To loosen the harness on vaccinations, okuchennyh earth mounds when the green shoots of growth razokuchivayut 30-40 cm, and then, after the relevant transaction, spud again.