Planting perennial herbaceous plants
Spring - a good time for planting of perennial flowering plants.They are bought in containers with already well-developed root system, or share old overgrown shrubs and perennials otsazhivayut delenki to a new location.Rules planting flower bushes and ornamental plants have virtually no significant differences from the general rules of planting.
Watering is one of the most important measures to ensure the viability of the plant.
watering problem must be solved together with the problem of optimal water permeability of the soil.Insufficient water permeability of heavy and clayey soils compacted leads to that moisture is retained in the upper layer of the soil, causing congestion, and is supplied to the plant roots.In this case the plant may rot on the waterlogged surface, while experiencing an acute shortage of water.Besides water, remaining in the top layer of soil, rapidly evaporates from the surface, causing cracking.In order to increase the permeability of heavy soils they should make t
light sandy soils dry out much faster than clay, so they should be watered more frequently during the dry season.At high water permeability of the soil moisture is quickly seeping inside, pausing only slightly in the root zone, and plants also lack of moisture, as their roots are not able to get her out of a deep soil layer.The ability of the soil to the accumulation of moisture can be improved through the introduction of pulverized silica and compost.In this regard, the main task of providing plants with moisture is not only the process of watering, but sozdanie1 by improving soil structure, soil environment with optimal water permeability.
Water dissolves nutrients and trace elements contained in the soil, and makes them available to plant roots in a soil solution.Moisture is a part
water in the form of rain or irrigation to the soil, it is absorbed, it seeps into the aquifer into the atmosphere in the form of evaporation from the soil surface.Delayed soil moisture enters through the root system of the plants and used them for their livelihoods, accounting for two-thirds of precipitation
tissues of plants, many vegetables on 95-97 % consist of water and therefore can not be required to fill itonly the amount of the precipitation volume, especially if they are not regular.Prolonged lack of moisture causes the inhibition of growth, causing more diseases and often leads to death of the plant.Moisture is especially necessary to plants during periods of active plant growth: during the period of initial growth, flowering and fruit formation.If at this time the plant lacks water, suffer his plody-, radish and radish become bitter sharp taste, begin to taste bitter cucumbers, tomatoes burst, kohlrabi and radish woody.The lack of natural moisture must be replenished regular watering, which is a necessary measure for any kind of crop care products.
Water for irrigation
There are a number of requirements for irrigation water, to which you should pay attention, the most important of these are: water quality, lack of toxic impurities and foreign bodies, low content of salts and minerals, neutral or slightly acid acidic reaction.In the modern garden plots for irrigation often use tap water from common water supply, well water or water from a well, coming into segments over the network pipe, water from a nearby reservoir, that is, river or lake and rainwater.Every kind of water has its own features and characteristics to establish the degree of suitability for irrigation.
Tap water pass filtering and the various stages of purification, which makes it suitable for drinking.Suitable such water and for irrigation, although it should be noted that the content of minerals in it is very low in the season can significantly increase the chlorine content. Well Water or water from the well, by contrast, is characterized by a high content of salts and minerals, since, passing through the thickness of the soil, it leaches valuable minerals, which is a good indicator of water.However, the content of minerals in the water should not be too high, otherwise it would be unsuitable for irrigation. Water from the reservoir regarded as the least favorable view of the irrigation water, as there is a risk the content of toxic wastes, chemicals, products of putrefaction, bacteria, foreign inclusions and other harmful impurities.Special mention should be rainwater.It much milder water typically has a substantially neutral reaction of the acid, moreover, it is extremely high in dissolved oxygen.All these qualities make very valuable rainwater for plants and the need to justify its collection.Note, however, that in extremely polluted environment in rainwater inevitably fall harmful chemicals, heavy metals, combustion of liquid and solid fuel in the form of soot and drops of an oil, lime dust, which gives the water hardness, which, of course, reduces the value ofrainwater.To minimize the extent of storm water pollution and related risk must be Observed barrel to collect rainwater
To drain tube attached device water collection, equipped valve, which regulates flow of water into the barrel. In dry weather barrel recommended close in order security children and animals
provide a set of rules associated with its collection.Tanks for rain water harvesting is usually installed under the downspouts and gutters, which means that before you get into the barrel, the water runs down the roof, washing precipitated on it dust, chemicals, carbon black, and Tad.The most heavily contaminated water of the first rain after a long period of drought, as the amount accumulated on the roofs of the mud is particularly high, so you should not collect rainwater, if before long there was no rain.If the rain is strong and protracted, can be dispensed water volume, drop-down in the first 30 minutes, this time is enough to wash away the roof of the main dust containing harmful impurities.Thereafter, it is possible to collect water in the tank.To be able to regulate the flow of water into the barrel, in the sump is recommended to install the valve, which can overlap, directing water from the downspout to the ground, when it was collected in a container for various reasons, not desirable.
Stiffness - property of water, due to the presence in it of calcium and magnesium salts, sometimes in combination with iron salts.Depending upon the type of compounds present in the water hardness of water is subdivided into temporary or permanent.Temporary water hardness causes its content of hydrocarbons, and it is removed by boiling.Permanent hardness in water due to the presence of calcium and magnesium salts.This type of hardness is an internal water feature and is not completely eliminated.The use of hard water results in the precipitation of solids on the constant stiffness less harmful for plants than the time.The use of water with a constant stiffness is the source of the plants supply such valuable trace elements such as calcium and magnesium.Regular intake of calcium has a positive effect on the metabolism, stimulates the activity of microorganisms and improves soil structure.In addition, the constant hardness hardly changes the level of acidity of the soil.Temporary or bicarbonate hardness of the water, if it is high enough, on the contrary, causes a disturbance in acid-base balance of the soil upwards contents of alkaline compounds.This is particularly negative impact on plants that require acidic soil: their roots are darker, becoming unhealthy brown, signs of chlorosis appear.So too hard water for irrigation is necessary to mitigate the addition of hydrated lime or oxalic acid, which is joining the himicheskuk reaction with an alkaline medium, cause osazhdensh minerals.
rules and principles of irrigation
first rule of watering is to water it should let not very often, but profusely. Watering every day, little by little makes no sense, because the water remains in the surface layer of the soil and roots of plants can not use it.Furthermore, the water evaporates from the surface and lose its plants.When watering the soil should soak up moisture at 20-25 cm depth to water saturation occurred at the level of root-deep layers.In this case, even if the dry soil surface the roots of the plants will be located in a moist soil environment and are not affected by a temporary lack of moisture.
watering frequency depends on the soil structure and its ability to trap moisture, weather conditions and the requirements of specific crops to the amount received by moisture, which can vary greatly.
Watering all kinds of crops should gradually in stages, possibly more than once already returning to Politi place.This is to ensure that moisture can fully absorb into the ground, to soften it and make it receptive to receiving a new portion of water.In the process of gradual watering the earth becomes a sponge structure, no water rolls off the surface and does not spread to the sides, and seeps deep, saturating the lower layers.
It is important not to miss the moment when you should make watering.It is not always dry soil surface indicates the need for watering, as the land on the depth of the roots can be raw and additional moisture is needed.
monitoring soil moisture levels
It is desirable that the soil moisture content is maintained at a constant level, without sharp changes in moistening and drying, which adversely affect the condition of the soil and plants.The constant soil moisture can be maintained by regular watering uniform in the absence of precipitation.An indication of the moisture content in the soil is its state at a depth of 25-30 cm, to check which should be a shovel to make the required hole depth.This simple test will conclude, as far as the soil needs watering if the soil at a depth of 25-30 cm is dry or only slightly damp, then it's time to make watering
However, a number of vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants root system is shallow at the toplayer of soil, and these plants are very dangerous surface drying, since they are not able to take advantage of the moisture from the deeper layers.Normal watering and frequency depends on the type of culture and the depth of the root system of the plant.
** Plants should be watered regularly and be sure to liberally, perhaps in stages, so that the water had soaked the soil layers to a depth of at least 25-30 cm to the bottom of the plant root area.With low ,
surface irrigation water does not reach the bulk of the root system and form a crust on the soil surface.In addition, a superficial watering plants in an effort to get the moisture, develop lateral surface roots, which, because of the small occurrence suffer during dry periods
Watering culture should be at the root, so that the water fed directly root of the plant and did not hurt him leafy partas many cultures are extremely sensitive to moisture, provoking the emergence and development of fungal diseases.
main watering rules
better abundantly watered once a few times slowly.
Watering gradually, in stages, allowing the water to soak in well.
Watering greatly parched areas should be carried out repeatedly at short intervals, gradually restoring soil sorption.
most favorable for watering early morning or late evening.
Absolutely can not irrigate under the scorching sun or in the middle of a hot day.
Try not to water the plants with cold water too, it causes the plant shock In addition, the root system of a plant absorbs cold water worse.
If possible, irrigate crops, especially the most sensitive ones, the settled warm water.For this purpose, ideal warmed in a barrel rainwater.
When watering with a hose is necessary to monitor the pressure of the water, the jet does not break the top layer of soil is not washed off the land and plants.
water the plants should be at the root, moistening the root area of plants.
hardwood Try not to wet the plants, as water droplets on the sun act as a lens and cause tissue burns, foliage and humidity leads to the development of fungal diseases, especially in sensitive crops.
take into account individual needs of crops in the water, hoping to irrigation rate, which directly depends on depends on the type of culture and depth location of its root system.
most favorable moment for irrigation is considered the early morning when the ground has cooled down for the night and moisturizing dew, not high temperatures.Suitable for irrigation and in the evening, though the earth and heated by hot air causes unwanted evaporation.In no case can not irrigate in the sun, especially on hot days.Such watering is not only useless, but can cause harm to plants, as there is a contrast between the water temperature and heated in the sun leaf and root mass of the plant is
shock, which can cause depression of its development.In addition, water droplets on the leaves and stems of the plants in the sun act as a lens that can cause burns plant tissues, deterioration and drying the sheet wafers.
Particular caution should be exercised when watering newly planted young plants.On the one hand, they must be thoroughly watered to soil contact originated and rooting was successful, but on the other hand, they can not, fill, as a plurality of root system.suction only moisture formed roots and the plant is not able to absorb large amounts of water.In order to avoid root rot processes and stalked the area of young plants, they are often desirable polivatY and little by little
It is very important not only to provide soil moisture, but also to help her keep her.The most proven ways to save soil moisture are mulching and loosening soil after watering. mulch layer of organic material significantly reduces the evaporation of moisture from the surface of soil, soil moisture and retains for a long time in the loose earth supports the wet state.If the increase mulch layer beds with landings can be left without watering, even on vacation.Loosening also significantly reduces the evaporation of soil moisture, as it destroys the fine capillaries through which water from the lower layers applied to the soil surface and then evaporates.If you loosen the soil after watering, the connection between the lower layers and the surface will be destroyed and the moisture remains in the soil is thicker, is not restored capillary tubes.Thus, loosening not only enriches the soil with oxygen, making it easier to access, but also helps to maintain a sufficiently stable soil moisture.
Vechnozelenyerasteniya have special needs: in the water, so they continue to evaporate the moisture in the winter, when other plants are dormant.Particularly intense evaporation occurs on sunny winter days, and often cause stunting and drying of coniferous evergreen cultures becomes a lack of moisture in the soil and plant tissues.Thus, evergreen plants need moisture, even in winter, and they need to be watered several times to thoroughly naetgugschenda.holodav and then in the spring, as soon as the snow melts.In warm areas, where the soil thaws out early or do not freeze in the cold season, you can repeat the watering during the winter.