Accessories for irrigation
Depending on the size of the area watered and related tasks, you can select different devices for irrigation.The simplest and most accessible of these is garden watering with showerheads.Its main advantage lies in the focus of irrigation, because all the water is delivered directly to a selected area or for a specific plant.There are various types and varieties of watering cans of different sizes, but, as practice shows, the most convenient is a watering can with a capacity of 10 liters.Lakey become larger volume when filled with very heavy, often have to add water in Lake smaller volume.At the watering should be a long spout and a comfortable handle, it must be well balanced during filling, the material from which made watering can, a matter of taste.Most watering cans equipped with spray heads or nets with different mesh size from small, like a sieve, to quite large.Nets with small holes used when watering the seeds and tender shoots.Lake convenient for watering small areas or single plants, but
coil is wound with her hose greatly facilitates the process of watering, and allows you to reach the most remote parts of the area
jet pressure and periodically be transferred to a new location.But it is necessary to make sure that the jet is not washed away the soil and not uncover the roots of plants.
Even such a simple operation as watering from a watering can, a failure tricks.Watering crops or young seedlings in the garden or in a box start at one end, and start watering even beyond the edge of a bed or crate, as the first large drops break up the soil, which leads to leaching of seeds and sprouts damage.Pron watering of plants, try to keep constant pressure jet for uniform surface wetting.Leica is withdrawn away from the plant, do not cut off the supply of water, otherwise the sudden water releases from the spout watering can damage tender plants and erode the soil.
Extensive irrigation opens perforated hose, having openings on one or both sides.It can be placed among plants in beds, beds, borders and floral along hedgerows and even bury in the ground at 10.5 cm. Hose connected to the water source, the water is pressurized and sprayed through small holes in the hose surface thusIt made soft metered irrigation, and the soil is deeply soaked with moisture.For uniformity of watering from time to time spread out on the surface of the hose portion is transferred.Perforated hose can also be used for drip irrigation. Hose dropper stretched over crops planting, fixing on the pegs, water
hose drip irrigation can ensure crop even during your absence.
If you make the minimum water pressure, will be no danger of waterlogging
yes from the source passes through the hose and out in small holes entering the soil in the form of drops.The main advantage of the method is to drip that purposefully moistened directly root area of plants and the water consumption is very moderate.This method is very convenient by the fact that the hose drip can be left in the crop even on vacation, only need to using a pressure regulator set a minimum water pressure.Water will be supplied to the plants in very small quantities, but continuously, thus excluding the drying of the soil.To irrigate large areas of lawn, the lawn or simply cultivated garden area are widely used various watering installation. They differ in the degree of complexity of the device and method of irrigation, but the principle of action at its core remains common.Water is fed into the watering installation of the hose connected to the water supply, and then sprayed on the surface area.Time of switching on and off can be set and adjusted by a timer.Depending on the size and shape of the irrigated area is necessary to choose the appropriate type of watering system.The rotary sprinkler sprays water through one or more nozzles, the circular motion which occurs due to water pressure.This setup allows you to irrigate the surface of the circle.Sprinklers installed on any type requiring irrigation area, then simply open the water and you will be relieved of the tedious watering a large area with a hose.
Soft irrigation by means of a perforated hose, which can be spread on the surface between
plants or bury in the ground on 5- KO see
Pulse watering installation
recommended for extensive irrigationSquare relatively circular shape, characterized by uniform wetting surface.Nozzle with rotating spray impulsno, the setting allows you to pour the entire sect vasheniya nozzle and part
Pendulum watering installation
for irrigation square or near the area it is advisable to use a pendulum watering installation.Water flows through the holes in the pendulum, which swings in one plane to the left and right
rotational watering installation
Ideal for watering site on the correct round shape and large enough.Sprinkler nozzle rotates as a result of force generated by the pressure of water and sprays water, gradually increasing the radius of irrigation
most complex and expensive devices for irrigation area are different automatic irrigation system. They are suitable for use in large gardens, a large space which is occupied lawns, lawns, flower beds and ridges, and where there is a steady source of water.Pipes for these irrigation systems lay under the ground, on the surface appears directly sprinkler nozzle.When the system is idle, nozzles are hidden under the surface of the soil, which is especially convenient when mowing the lawn mowers.When a pressurized water nozzles are in working condition and rise above the surface of the lawn.Time and duration of watering are established and governed by the computer.Thus, the inclusion of the system, the beginning and the termination of the water supply is automatic, and the set humidity sensors allow you to monitor the degree of soil moisture in the root zone of plants.
Main pests and diseases of horticultural crops
By pests of plants and animals are insects that can cause damage to plants, damage from which is economically feasible to prevent.Damage inflicted in different ways, the main ones are the power on plants egg laying, the transfer of bacterial, viral and fungal diseases.Lesions appear in the predation of individual organs and tissues of plants, change their color, abnormal tissue development, occurrence of deformation of plant organs and their withering away.For example, eating a plant tissue of leaves, buds, flowers and fruits, herbivorous moth larvae-tephritid doing a winding-mine tunnels in the leaf, the larvae of sawflies and moth can strip the bushes and trees and completely destroy the crop.Through its activities, pests lead to reduced quantity and quality of crops, weaken the general condition of the plants, leading to plant death and whole crop plantations.The various organs of plants feed on more than 600 species of insects, arachnids, molluscs, and other groups of animals.Most pests belong to the class of insects.Most crops in varying degrees, damaged by pests and various diseases.In the years favorable for the development of insects breed is particularly active and are able to cause serious damage not only to crops, but also the health of the plants.
Under disease understand plant disruption of metabolism in tissues, cells and organs of plants under the influence of phi topatogena or adverse conditions of plant growth.Disorders of this type are usually associated with impaired physiological functions and structure of the body and lead to defeat certain plant organs or whole plants in general.Plant diseases are characterized by abnormalities in the development of normal state defined by the genotype of a particular culture, accompanied by a decrease in yield and quality, weakening and even death of the plant.Plant diseases can be classified:
on symptoms and lesion types (patogra graphically-classification);A duration and development of the disease;
due to the disease and its pathogen (the etiological classification);ft according to the affected plants (systematic classification).
the symptoms and types of diseased plants are divided into diffuse or system, that is striking to some extent all the tissues and organs of the plant (wilting, drying, chlorosis, dwarfism), and local, that is affecting the individual tissues and organs of plants or parts thereof (spotting, plaque, blisters, swelling, tissue deformity, ulcers).For the duration of the disease was isolated chronic disease occurring since the beginning to the end of life of the plant, and seasonal, existing within the same period of the growing season.To identify the causes of the disease and the choice of the necessary protective measures most convenient etiologic classification of diseases, according to which all diseases are divided into noninfectious and infectious.
noncommunicable diseases are caused by physiological origin and abiotic (non-biological) factors.This category of diseases includes all disorders in the development of the plant, resulting from the adverse effects of
Noncommunicable or physiological diseases
The group of these diseases are serious violations of the normal physiological functions of plant organs, disorders in the development of plants caused by:
poor soil structure,
excessive or inadequate fertilization and related excess or deficiency of nutrients in korneobitaniya zone,
unsuitable locus with an excess or lack of sunlight,
unsuitable for the development of the plant soil temperature,
mechanical damage by wind, hail, snow,
environmental factors (air pollution, soil and groundwater),
incorrect application of plant protection chemicals, etc..
Noncommunicable diseases weaken the plant, causing inhibition of growth, reduce plant life activity, which creates the preconditions for serious infection of parasitic organisms and can cause any infectious diseases.
growth environment and the mistakes gardener to grow a particular culture.It is primarily manifested in the inability to properly determine the optimal measure of the fact that the plant is able to make and what really needs.The causes of many disorders in the development of the plants are over-fertilization, or, on the contrary, a serious lack of essential nutrients, inaccurate calculation of consumption of plant water and irrigation rates, as a result of which it can equally suffer from waterlogging and lack of moisture, the wrong choice of location for the plant as ain a climate zone scale and on the site where the plant is suffering from excessive solar irradiance or lagging behind in development, while in deep shadow.Such gardener mistakes have serious consequences for plants and can trigger a variety of plant diseases.The success of the treatment of non-infectious diseases of plants largely depends on the timely and correct determination of the causes of disease and
possible measures to eliminate it.However, be aware that the physiological plant disease is easier to prevent than to treat.
One very common non-communicable diseases is chlorosis.It occurs in plants as a result of an excess of chlorine in the soil at regular excessive application of mineral fertilizers, especially potash, a result of the disease the proportion of the plant's leaves become narrow, sheet plate edges are wrapped up, decreased chlorophyll content in plant tissues.
Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, mycoplasma, algae, worms, insects, mites.Depending on the causative agent of infectious diseases can be transmitted from plant to plant in different ways and often take the form of an epidemic.
Bacterial diseases are divided into several groups depending on the symptoms.By first group includes lesions, accompanied by the decomposition of the putrid soft plant tissue (dry or wet).Most of these phenomena are caused by bacteria genera Pseudomonas and Erwinia. Bacterioses second group appear as spots on the leaves, which are then distributed to other parts of the plant.In dry weather, the affected areas dry, in the wet they appear slimy bacterial mass.The agents of these diseases are most often bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas, propagating along with the seeds.By third type bacterial diseases include the conducting system of plants.In these cases, the bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas, dwell in the land, spread through the vascular path damaged roots and affect the entire plant.It gradually turns brown, wither and die.Bacteria of this group affect different types of fruit and ornamental trees (especially young trees and bushes in nurseries).Disease susceptible and flowers (roses, chrysanthemums, geraniums, dahlias, etc..).In its initial stage growths are small, soft, whitish, but grow and become the size of a fist, turn brown and woody.Damaged roots are no longer able to perform their functions;the plant weakens and dies.Of bacterial origin, and the so-called galls (swellings or nodules) formed on the lower parts of the stems in a wide variety of ornamental plants as a result of infection by bacteria
Corynebacterium fas-cians (for example, chrysanthemums).
Viral diseases often manifest in changing the natural green color, appearance of whitish or yellowish spots on leaves and stems.