Pruning grapes in autumn
Pruning - an operation by which the annual remove or shorten the annual shoots, and if necessary, the old branches.
General Rules. On fruiting bushes on the normally developed leaves a good annual vines matured in diameter in the middle of 6-12 mm, located on the two-year wood.Wounds
sleeves must be located on one side, usually on the inside.To do this, leave the swirls of substitution outside the middle of the bush and below each arrow of fruiting.Related and opposite wounds break sap flow, the plant is exhausted and can be lost.
Annual shoots, as well as the long-term portion, are cut at the base, leaving the pad about 0.3-0.5 cm. "Lick" sections lead to a rapid and deep tissue death.Leave larger hemp is also harmful.
Policy for wounds on the arms and the formation of fruit units by year;figures indicated age of vines
Removal of annual escape from the sleeve: on AB line - right;through AB - wrong
Shortening annual vines: And - correct;b - wrong;in - slice through
node When removing perennial cut branches should be done perpendicular to the axis in order to reduce the area of the wound.
When shortening the annual vines cut is made through the interstitial 1.5-2 cm above the top eyelet.The cut must be oblique and directed to the opposite side of the eye (the eye is prevented from pouring juice during sap flow).In areas where the vineyards damaged zygaenidae, cut through the knot with a mustache, above the diaphragm.
With annual pruning are removed otplodonosivshie arrow and create a new link from the fruit shoots that developed on a branch of substitution of the previous year.It is undesirable to leave the speck out of the escape, which developed on otplodonosivshie direction, as it violates the rules of crop and leads to a rapid lengthening sleeves.
If two cone shaped fruit escape (increased fruit link), the lower of which is cut to 2-3 buds shorter than the upper.
When rejuvenation sleeves should not be selected for this shoots, located between the two wounds, as the newly formed sleeve quickly wither away.
When replacing aging or damaged hoses or use coppice Voltchkova escape, which developed at its base, which are cut on the future length of the sleeves.
Removal of annual escape from the sleeve: on AB line - right;on line AB - wrong
To reduce the length of the sleeves should be cut on a limb conveniently located escape, if it is not put in the right place shears injections to cause the development of dormant buds, cut or sleeve at 5-6 cm from the scrub head.After trimming such multiple shoots develop, which can be used to further optimize the structure of the bush.
Procedure trim. Getting pruning, take into account the peculiarities cultivated in the area grapes, and then evaluate the general condition of the bush, check hoses, fruit vines, swirls of substitution, specify the most favorable variant form.On Forming besshtambovyh pruning easier if the vines and sleeves pre-release of the Garter.
pruning bushes starts with the removal of all unnecessary shoots and hoses (broken, dry, etc.) on the head of the bush, bole cordon regardless of the forming.Old sleeve, which gave a weak growth of annual shoots, cut out entirely.His replacement is selected a strong and well-positioned escapes, coppice or Volchkov, which is clipped on the forming besshtambovyh 80-100 cm, weaker shoots are pruned harder.
substitution principle the exposed shoulder cordon or lengthen sleeves
next step - is to work with each sleeve on the formation of fruit on their links.It is not always ideal when removing otplodonosivshie arrow, you can form a new fruit element from two shoots, formed on a branch of substitution of the previous year.Consider a situation that can occur when cutting, for example, knots substitution:
a) on a branch of substitution developed only one good escape, at last year's arrow many good shoots.Escape that developed on a branch replacement is cut to 3-4 buds on a twig, and fruiting leave one or two well-developed flight, which developed in the last year's arrow;
Various options for pruning on fruit element.Dashes indicate pruning place: 1 - sleeve;2 - a knot;3 - Arrow fruiting
b) on a branch of substitution developed a good escape, and at last year's fruit arrow all weak, poorly matured.Escape to cut the knot of substitution on the arrow of fruiting, but shorter, and the arrow was removed last year;
in) on a branch of substitution is not developed shoots or it has not been abandoned.In this case the fruit vine and knot substitution formed from shoots that developed at last year's escape of the fruit;
g) on a branch of substitution is not developed shoots, and the arrow only one good escape.This escape is left on the arrow and is bent in an arc to the development of the two, being at the base of the arrow holes that will give shoots for crop next year.To bend the arrow quickly and does not break down, it is necessary to substitute the index finger of the left hand in place of a fold, making it a point of support, followed by a right hand to seize the end of the shoot, bend and tie.
In cases when there is no escape for the replacement of a sleeve forming a knot or substitutions in the right place make transverse incision cortex.It promotes the development of the necessary shoots from dormant buds.
cropping period.When neukryvnoy culture grape pruning bush begin 2-3 weeks after leaf fall and carry it during the winter except for frost days (temperatures below 3-5 ° C).Note that uncircumcised shrubs are more resistant to low temperatures than cut, so the first thing cut more cold-resistant varieties - Isabella, Lydia, Gift Magaracha, December and others.Grades sredneustoychivye frost cut off later, when the danger of severe frost has passed.Varieties with low frost resistance (Queen of vineyards, Karaburnu, Crimean Pearl, brand, etc.), And placed on a more open and less protected areas cut off in the last turn.
In a covering culture grape pruning it is advisable to carry out in two stages: the pre (autumn before the shelter of bushes) and final (after the opening of the bushes, and before the blooming buds).Pre-pruning is to "clarification" of the bush, that is to remove the head of the bush and sleeve underdeveloped, poorly matured shoots partial shortening normally developed shoots, which facilitates ukryvki and reduces the amount of work in the spring.In the spring pruning is carried out taking into account the freezing of the kidneys, eyes set final load of bushes.Given that in areas sheltered viticulture early frosts, you should not wait for the autumn leaf fall when pruning.If approached the bushes hiding terms and there is a threat of frost period, the vine can cover with leaves.At the same time remove all known unnecessary parts - nevyzrevshie vine and its parts, underdeveloped shoots, stepchildren and antennae, otplodonosivshie pruned vine, so that remains a large stock of eyes.
Regardless of the spring crop area is considered the best, as this persists longer holes and they bloom later, which is important for areas with frequent late spring frosts.
spring clip in the first grade, who later disbanded eyes (Senso, Karaburnu, Rkatsiteli), and later - with early blooming varieties eyes (Chasselas, Aligoté, Pearl Saba).If the shrubs on the site a bit, then all sorts of better crop in the later stages, closer to the sap flow phase, which leads to a delay blooming buds in the 7-10 days.In the autumn term of the first cut early ripening varieties and a frost, the last - late varieties of life and less cold-resistant.
pruning technique. To trim using secateurs and grape nail file, which should be well sharpened.When working keep secateurs so that the knife was from leave a part of the vine, and the fence - from leaving.This allows the smooth sections.
When the vase life of sleeves and other parts perennial bush removable portion is tilted in the left hand side opposite the blade secateurs, which greatly facilitates the work.Do not compress the secateurs with two hands, as do the inexperienced Cutters.If removable sleeve thick, then cut it in several stages sliding movements.
Perennial bush of the thickness of more than 3 cm cut down grape sawing, pressing it when driving over.The cut must be smooth or garden knife blade pruners.If you want to cut shtamb below ground level, then make the hole around the trunk diameter of at least 50 cm to obtain a perpendicular cut.
trimming length - the number of buds, leaves after pruning on annual shoots.It depends on the cultivar, growing conditions, and the forming of the bush.Short pruning (1-4 buds) are carried out more often on Forming stam cordon, medium (5-8 buds) - on the forming besshtambovyh on varieties with a high fruitfulness buds (Early Magarach, Aliquot, Delight, Pearl Saba, Pearl Hall et al.);long (9-12 holes and more) - on the forming besshtambovyh on strong-table variety, as well as varieties with weak fruitfulness lower eyes (Karaburnu, Italy, Rkatsiteli, Tayfi white Nimrang et al.).
to strong-bush varieties or pruning should be longer than for sredneroslye.Long pruning is carried out in the areas of culture and a covering on the irrigated vineyards, providing good nutrition.
short pruning many varieties leads to lower yields, but the guarantee to improve the quality of grapes, strengthens the growth of shoots and improves their aging.
some guidance to establish the length of the crop may be left on the vine so much holes, the thickness of the vines at the base between the third and fourth internodes (measured with a caliper at the smallest diameter of the vines).If part of the buds damaged, cut length increases.
exception to this rule - cropping on twigs, pruning young and old bushes that require a shorter crop.
load bushes. winegrower task is to educate on a bush growing number of normally developed fruit-bearing shoots (at slaboroslyh grades - shoots a minimum length of 100 cm and a diameter in the middle of 6-10 mm, in the medium and silnoroslyh - 120-150 cm, respectively, and6-12 mm).
The more developed the bushes, the more they are loaded.The load is determined by the amount left on the bush buds.However, the valuation of eyes - the estimated reception.Final load is specified at a fragment of (removed unnecessary green shoots and inflorescences).
vigorous but nizkoplodonosnym varieties (Karaburnu, Chaush, Tabriz) leave the burden more than medium- and slaboroslyh but vysokoplodonosnym (Chasselas, Pearl Saba, Violet early).On the fertile and well-to-soil moisture load of the same class must be more than a marginal soils and moist enough.
set greater than the dense planting in rare strain of each bush.On the forming of large load must be higher than succinct.
When autumn leaves pruned buds safety stock (20-30%), depending on the winter conditions of the region.
mistake many amateur viticulturists - overload harvest bushes.Its consequences - weak growth and weak shoots of aging, melchanie grapes and berries, poor sugar content, delayed maturation of the crop.
Bad and underemployment.Its symptoms: low productivity, the emergence of strong laterals and fattening shoots from the base of the bush.
If the bush strong growth on the bush and there fatliquoring shoots the load eyes and shoots increased by an average of 25-30% of the adopted.In the absence of fattening and the average growth of shoots bush load given in the amount of last year.If growth is below average and some of the shoots are thinner and weaker than normal, then reduce the load against the last year.
have krupnogrozdnyh grades one fertile escape 2-3 leaves barren, while the high-yield with an average bunch can do without sterile shoots.
give precise recommendations on the load of bushes is impossible, since the variety, and even every bush in specific circumstances require an individual approach.Lover is necessary in practice, through the annual accounting and observations, experiments to produce for themselves differentiated load standards.
For orientation can result in the following recommendations.
on young bushes in the first year of vegetation can be left (in the formation of the trunk) escape 1-3, in the second year - 6-8.In good conditions, and the use of planting seedlings, leaving a powerful two knots 2-3 escape in the first year on the bushes can grow sprouts 4-6, in the second year -15-18 shoots, leaving when cutting 2 bitch 2 and the arrows on the length of the futuresleeves.In the same year already available crop within 02.03 kg.So the bushes should be given maximum attention, providing them with food and water.
spring of the third year of life on the bushes can leave a load equal to 50% and in the fourth year - 75% of the load installed on fruit-bearing bushes.In the three years of the bushes while providing food and water for strong-growing varieties can be left on the bush shoots 20-25 on sredneroslye and non-irrigated areas - no more than 12-15, a four - 25-35 and 20-30, respectively, shoots on the bush.
On fruiting bushes at the fan formirovke in the conditions of Krasnodar territory under the scheme 2.5 x 1.5 m is recommended: on the dining sredneroslye varieties (Chasselas, Senso, Cardinal, Pearl Saba, Muscat Kuban, the Queen of vineyards), leave 20-25 shoots;silnoroslyh (Italy, Karaburnu, Victory, Muscat Hamburg) - 25-35;technical (Aligote, Rkatsiteli) - 35-40;varieties are prone to overload (Gift Magaracha, Saperavi north, Purple Early) - 25-30;vysokoplodnyh (Nimrang, Tayfi pink, Rizamat et al.) at besedchatyh forms - up to 30 shoots per 1 m2 of the trellis.
Forms vines and their excretion
If grape plant leave without pruning, it will take the form of plants to climb.The fruits thus obtained are small, tasteless, low yield.
proper pruning and the forming can be made to uniformly grow vine and give a good harvest.This bush size, its shape, as well as fruiting primarily depend on the crop and the method of forming the bushes chosen depending on soil and climatic conditions, the biological characteristics of varieties and apply support system.
DEVICE SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR GRAPE
main types of supports used in home gardens, can be grouped into three types of trellis system: vertical trellis, pergola, wall.The system of support to equip in advance of planting grapes, or no later than the beginning of the second growing season the bushes.
vertical trellis consists of anchor and intermediate pillars, connected by wire to the one or more tiers.In this system, all parts of the bush are guided along a wire disposed in a vertical or inclined plane.
most common vertical trellis.For its installation on both ends of a number digged to a depth of 50-60 cm columns edge length of about 2 m and a thickness of 10-12 cm. Between them, every 6.5 m, establish intermediate poles of the same length but with a smaller diameter (about8 cm).
To give strength boundary pillars, used the anchor, brace, or simply bury the boundary pillar in an inclined position on a number of to a great depth.Then, these poles are fixed galvanized wire thickness of 2-3 mm in one or more tiers.By the extreme poles wire is attached firmly, and to the intermediate free - straps, hooks, or simply pieces of wire, so it can be moved freely along the line and tighten if sagging.
For ordinary fan formirovok first tier pull at a height of 35-40 cm from the soil surface, the following - once every 40-50 cm
If a dlinnorukavnuyu forming shop, the first pull wire at a height of 15-20 cm to create a bend at the sleeves.(on the first or second year of planting), and the following year it rises to the top tier.Instead, bend can be created by prishpilivaniya shoots.