Formation of vines under a covering culture
on the plot when a covering culture of grapes bushes formed by type fan with many arms.Forming This can be double-sided and single-sided with different length and number of branches, with links rejuvenation and without them, great for gazebos and usual for an ordinary landing.It is applicable for neukryvnoy grape culture.
Three- and chetyrehrukavnuyu fan formirovke used to slaboroslyh sredneroslye grades and in less favorable soil and climatic conditions when placing growth on vertical trellis, six-vosmirukavnuyu - for medium and strong-growing varieties in a good water and nutrient regime using two-planetrellis.
sleeve length can vary from 40 to 100 cm or more.Short sleeves are left in the middle of the bush, long - to the periphery of the bush axis.In addition, for the varieties with a high fruitfulness, not distinguished by strong growth, fit cropped sleeves.For strong-mainly table grapes, the sleeves should be long, that will create a long-term supply of wood, or fruiting they will faint.
Removing fan-shaped bush: and - after planting a sapling;b - the second year of the bush and cropping;in - the third year of the bush and cropping;g - the fourth year of the bush and cropping;d - trimmed bush in the fourth year after planting
productive life of the sleeves is an average of 4-6 years.However, in areas where spotted necrosis evident sleeves are stored in the main two or three years (Rostov Region, Stavropol Territory, etc..).So here at the head of the bush left two additional three-bitch to replace damaged hoses.
usual method of forming shrubs. first year after planting.When fan formirovke leaves on each plant 2-3 escape.Create favorable conditions for the normal development of growth.
second year after planting .In the spring before blooming buds, pruning is carried out.At the young bushes do not always develop the desired number of shoots.If there is only one last escape it 3-4 lower left eye, and when both of the two shoots are cut to 2-3 buds.
During the second period of growing bushes are developing a strong root system and form a 2-4 and a strong vine.They are periodically tied up to a trellis.They are intended for forming the sleeves of the bush.When a fragment is removed excess, weak shoots and those designed in the aisles.Shoots left on the formation of the sleeves, are placed in the same longitudinal plane.This will facilitate further ukryvki bushes.
When planting in the ground is weak and few nutrients, in the first two years is better not to cut the bushes, and the formation of conduct in the spring of the third year.This will strengthen the capacity of the root system of the bush.
third year after planting. spring when trimming the bushes in the two shoots left on each of the lower 3-4 buds.In plants, two to three shoots are trimmed to the future length of the sleeves, and the eyelet lower left 4/3 in the third for growing shoots on a sleeve missing.Bushes with four normally developed shoots are cut to length sleeves future.
After trimming shoots to tie inclined trellis (fan) in a number of planes.Then, when they bloom eyes, remove excess shoots, except for the top three.These shoots will continue to be used for the formation of fruit units.With good care for the 3rd year, you can get a crop.Thus it is necessary to lower the eye of the three left was situated on the outside of the vines, because of it then formed a knot of substitution, the third escape on each sleeve is left as a backup for more foliage shrub.During the green pieces of sleeves and head back clean of unnecessary shoots and dormant buds.
development on the sleeves of additional branches thickens and reduces their flexibility.Such a sleeve is difficult to bend down to the ground at the shelter for the winter.With the growth of shoots tied up to a trellis.
fourth year after planting .Bushes are cut depending on the number of sleeves formed on them.In plants with two or three sleeves form the missing, and to provide existing fruit links.At each arm bush left two lower escape, the top is removed.Then the two upper trim the length of shoots the arrow of fruiting, and the bottom - at the speck of substitution.After trimming the skeleton of the bush tie up to the trellis in the future carry out the debris and green garter.
If you want to increase the number of branches, they create from coppice shoots or shoots undercutting some develop in the bush at the base of swirls on the second or fourth year after planting.
fifth year after planting. This year ends with the formation of the bushes with missing arms;on the already-formed bushes removed otplodonosivshie arrows;replacement of the shoots knots form a new fruit links.
If desired, this can be converted into a forming shop dlinnorukavnuyu by coppice shoots that developed on the head bush.
Accelerated method of forming pinch out the tops, or spend the early coinage and use suckers to form a fruiting units.Weak shoots are removed stepsons and unnecessary.This method is effective for strong growth of shoots on the background of good nutrition and irrigation and involves the installation of trellis in the first year of vegetation.
first year after planting. With a length of 10-15 cm of shoots all weak shoots removed, except for the top two.When they reach the length of 40-60 cm (future arms) carried topping.Then 10 days later suckers removed, except for the top two.Shoots tied up vertically to enhance growth.
second year after planting. When spring pruning prischipnut shoots obliquely tied up in a number of planes, and last year's crop on stepchildren fruit links.During this year, missing left to form the sleeves shoots pinch out on their hose length and on the ends bring 2-3 stepson (future fruit units).
Unilateral dlinnorukavnaya Forming acceptable for sites provided with water, medium and strong-growing varieties.Using it, you can create decorative purposes tall trellis on both sides of the garden path, the main entrance, etc.
Formed bush consists of 2-3 sleeves (length of 100-150 cm and more), directed to one side, with 2-3 ramifications on each (the longest left lower arm).Each fork is a short horn with plain or reinforced fruit link.If excessive elongation of the sleeves is shortened to the first or second branch.The bush can have from 6 to 10-12 arrows 2-6 knots of substitution, as well as a link to rejuvenate.
When forming the base of the bush sleeve attached to a bend that is formed by using oblique garter vines to temporarily stretched at a height of 15-20 cm wire (can be pinned sleeves) and garter
top of the sleeves to the next tier of the wire at a height of 70 cm. Followtwo tiers are placed every 45 cm, and for top-tier use the lower wire, which rises in a year or two after the formation of the bend.Bending facilitates laying vines before winter ukryvki bushes.The skeleton of the bush can be placed on the two-plane trellis.
Withdrawal sided dlinnorukavnoy formirovki VNIIVO them.Ya.I.Potapenko: a - the first year;b - second year (spring and autumn);in - the third year (spring);g - the fourth year (spring)
Long sleeves help placing the crop at a height of 1 m or more, and the free location of growth.
usual method of forming shrubs. first year after planting .During fragments on each bush leave for two shoots, which as they grow vertically first tie to the bottom of the wire situated at a height of 15-20 cm, and then to the other tiers.
second year after planting. spring before blooming buds, the shoots are cut.If the length of the ripe shoots, left last year, more than 70 cm, they are cut 20-30 cm above the tiers placed at a height of 70 cm. The lower part of their tie to the bottom of the wire (15-20 cm) with an inclination towards ukryvkiat an angle of 20-25 °, and the upper part of a small slope -. at a height of 70 cm lower wire pull for one growing season to make the base of the shoots Z-shaped bend in the autumn to raise the upper tier.
spring swollen eyes removed, leaving two to four on each upper arm.With a length of 15-20 cm of shoots spend a second debris.Shoots as they grow tie.
If the length of the last year's ripe shoots less than 70 cm, they are cut so that the cut shoots with a diameter of less than 5 mm.Then they tie to the bottom wire and remove all the extra eyes, and later - the shoots at the bottom of the sleeves.
If last year's shoots are weak, they are pruned during spring pruning to 2-3 buds and growing 2 escape, as in the first year after planting.
third year after planting .In the spring at the top of the sleeves normally developed leaves, 2-3 arrows.On the sleeves, which did not reach the height of 70 cm, left two arrows, one arrow to continue.
In the embodiment where two annuals grown vines, cut them at a height of 90-100 cm at the base and make the bend, tied up the lower part of the sleeves at a height of 20-15 cm, the top -. At a height of 70 cm Then tie the arrow, blind eyes tofirst arrow or up to a height of 50 cm, weak shoots break off the arrows green tie.
the normal development of the bushes load is 15-17 shoots on lagging - 6-10 shoots.
fourth year after planting. When pruning of the arrows at the top of the sleeves form a fruiting units - branching.If you want to increase the load on the bush, you can leave the fruit enhanced links and create a new branch.The upper arrow is cut by 10-12 holes, the lower - 6-8 holes.Sleeve arrow tie the first and second wire.In the bush, where the fruit units and sleeves are not yet established, the formation process continues.
On fruiting bushes are removed otplodonosivshie arrows and create new fruit links on the ramifications;lengthen the sleeve is cut at the top to the first or second branching on.
With the weakening of the growth of shoots on the sleeve, at its base, is allowed to replace coppice shoots, which are cut at 130-150 cm and tie properly.
Accelerated way to derive the forming. Depending on the condition of the bushes on the first or second year when a fragment is left 2 strong canes and tie them upright.Once shoots begin to exceed the first length core wire (70-100 cm) of 10-15 cm, they pinch.
It promotes active growth of laterals.All stepsons, except two or three, are removed.
spring of next year to create a bend near surface tensioned wire.Stepchildren cut the arrows.Later pruning aims to create branches.
Dlinnorukavnaya Forming free-growth location.
Formed bush has two or three hoses 150 cm long with two arrows fruit on them, the vine twig substitution and recovery.Support - single-wire trellis, stringing its height above ground level 140 cm At the same time the formation of shoots grow freely, green garter and debris is not carried out..Otplodonosivshie sleeves with fruit vines are cut at the base, on each new sleeve leave two or three vines.
During the first year on bushes grow two strong shoots.
spring of the second year grown shoots pruned to 4-5 buds.When a fragment is left 3-4 strong escape, which inclined toward the shelter temporarily tied up to high wire at a height of 60 cm, while the second garter - to the wire at a height of 140 cm
spring of the third year 2-3 upper escape cut off.at a height of 160 cm, and the others - to 4-5 buds.When dry garter arrows attached vertically with a slight curve to the upper part of the trellis.
When a fragment of all the shoots, which appeared on the sleeves to a height of 130 cm, break out, on top of the leaves 3-4 most developed escape on each sleeve escape the fruit.
autumn bushes separated from the wire laid along the row and the harbor.
fourth spring the formation of the bush ends.Later pruning principle is the annual replacement otplodonosivshie new sleeveless prepared knots of substitution.
larger fan Forming has 2-4 long hoses (up to 2 m and more), extending from the fan-shaped bush head.On the sleeves there are the branch of the second - fourth order with fruit functioning or short knots on cultivars with a short pruning, particularly in izabellnyh.
Perennial and annual part of the bush with the increase of the current year are placed in different parts of the trellis (trellis bowline) in a vertical, horizontal or inclined position.
forming shop This is often used in small yards, buildings bounded by high walls.
for the forming of such a powerful approach vigorous varieties.A necessary condition for the proper development and fruiting shrubs at this formirovke - good availability of power plants and water.
for landscaping pergolas izabellnye widely used varieties, which do not harbor the winter, as well as varieties with high frost resistance of domestic breeding.Vine highly productive varieties with low frost resistance in a covering area before ukryvki removed from the pavilions, recoiling into the ring, insulated with paper or dropwise.
general rule pruning and shaping bushes when grown in the gazebo, the walls of the buildings and even distribution of annual green shoots for better use of space in the vertical and horizontal directions.When thickening plots, as evidenced by the poor aging shoots, it is necessary to thin out the fruit units, remove the weakest vines.Annually remove old fruit arrows, which was obtained with the harvest last year, and create a new link in a fruit or cut short shoots on twigs.
usual method of forming shrubs. In the year of planting bushes provide an opportunity to strengthen the root system, so the shoots do not break off.
spring of the second year - two annual shoots are pruned to 3-5 buds, and the rest are removed.When a fragment is left strongly developed escape 2-4, which tie up with the growth of several pan on both sides for the convenience of the shelter.If necessary, a second debris.
spring of the third year - evolved shoots trimmed to the length of the ripe.During the first debris left on the vines 1-2 escape at a height of 40-60 cm and 3-4 escape at the top.All other shoots are removed evolved.In the third year of green shoots cover most of the gazebos and provide shade in the summer.
From this year begin to lengthen sleeves and create branching on them.Thus, the left in the bottom of the escape 1-2 serve as the basis for the creation of branches to green the vertical part of the pergola, and shoots at the top of the vines contribute to lengthening sleeves.With the growth of shoots tied up.
spring fourth year - formation of the bush.The sleeves of the first order always starting to cut from top to bottom.The uppermost escape after trimming is called the arrow to continue.It is cut by 10-15 holes, each subsequent - on 2-3 buds shorter than the previous (or on short twigs - 1-3 buds).
follow the arrow to continue the vines are for fruiting, and the creation of branches.Each sleeve can be two or three or more branches, with horns or arrows fruiting.Between the branching sleeve Genuine leave a distance of 40-50 cm, to avoid excessive thickening of the crown.
spring fifth year - the work continues to lengthen sleeves if necessary.At the direction of continuing one upper cut off escape for the continuation of the sleeve, and the other located below, to create an additional branching.
arrows left in the past year to create branching sleeves are of second order.They create links in the fruit or spend a short pruning vines.With strong growth of each branch can have fruit arrows 1-3, and also cut the top is longer than the lower..