Growing blackcurrant

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

Site Selection

A good choice of location for planting of blackcurrant largely determines its durability and efficiency.

most favorable to the culture of the middle zone, with relatively cool summers and relatively mild winters and sufficient moisture.North of Vologda and the harsh climatic conditions of the eastern regions of many varieties of currants, despite the relative resistance to cold, often suffer from low winter temperatures (freeze flower buds freeze slightly shoots or dried up).

black currant is best planted on level ground or on a small slope (not more than 5-10 °) in the lower or middle part.The south of the cultivation area, the lower the terrain to be discharged under the currant sector.In the upper part of the slope the soil dries quickly - berries are small, and many varieties they ripen prematurely and fall off.On the open and high places with cold weather strong winds prevent insects fly and prevent good pollination.

Despite the relative hardiness of blackberry to a large exten

t in need of natural protection from cold north and east winds.Such protection can be built, an orchard and a fast-growing shrubs such as acacia, lilac, mock orange, hazel.

In the steppe regions, this culture suffers from dry winds.Without the protection of dry winds dry out the soil and so increase the evaporation of water, the roots can not cope with the supply of water from the soil, and currants fade, giving weak growth and often deprived of the harvest.Great harm caused to the winds blown away from the area the snow cover, without which in the northern and central zones of the soil freezes much, especially when it suffers the root system of plants.

For blackcurrant unsuitable saucer-shaped relief depressions, closed depressions and hollows.In such places, the spring delayed cold air mass and spring frost killed the flowers and ovaries.The basins are usually longer than in other places, delayed dew and fog.In these circumstances, the bushes strongly affected by fungal diseases.

Black currant grows best fruits and sufficiently moist soil with a layer of permeable subsoil.But areas with high groundwater location (above 1.5 m) should be avoided.For blackcurrants are not suitable as the low wetlands with no runoff, with excess moisture.On temporarily flooded hollow waters (up to 1 m) coastal lands currant grows relatively well: the additional roots are formed in a thick layer of silt on the shoots.

Under blackcurrants have to choose land with enough fertile soil.It is well cultivated, structural soil medium texture.

soil should be clean of perennial weeds such as field bindweed, concoctions, sorrel and couch grass.In severe soil contamination is best to hold a clean steam, systematically destroying grow back during the summer annual and perennial weeds.Best predecessors - perennial legumes (clover), row crops or vegetables.

Of all the berries black currant is the most sensitive to the acidity of the soil.At a pH below 4.5 plants poorly developed more susceptible to diseases and less fruit, giving small, prone to shattering berries.

Currant related to shade tolerance, but it does not follow that it is Shade.Best of all, it bears fruit in normal sunlight or with little shade, for example, when planting between rows of young garden.

preplant soil preparation

Blackcurrant is very responsive to improve growing conditions.

Before planting, you must prepare the site.Preplant soil preparation is to increase the arable horizon, filling the soil with organic and mineral fertilizers, liming and local domestication (in number of wells).

in cultivated soil increasing depth of the arable layer and organic matter content.Land is becoming structural and breathable, well heated, improves the water regime.All this creates favorable conditions for the activity of enhancing soil bacteria and thus to supply currant.

After planting difficult to improve the structure and enhance the content of organic matter in the soil.Plantation in this case will never be highly productive.

If the soil is strongly moistened, the site should be dry.To divert water dug ditches open or closed.

Black currants can be planted in the spring (April), before bud burst.By the spring planting begin as soon as the soil ceases to be smeared;at this time in the land of plenty of moisture, planted plants take root quickly and well.It should be borne in mind that the black currant early start to grow, and as if we did not hurry with the spring work, still growing bushes at spring planting is delayed and shrubs develop weaker than when planting in the fall.At a later date, when the currants are often planted with blossoming leaves, the survival rate decreases dramatically, especially in the dry and hot weather.

Early autumn (end of September - the first half of October) - the best time for planting of blackcurrant : still relatively warm and the soil has enough moisture from the autumn rains.During the autumn-winter soil is well compacted and settles around the bushes, formed new adventitious roots, and the plants start to grow early in the spring.

In areas where there is little snow and possible freezing of the root system, it is expedient for the spring planting.To protect the kidneys from the blooming spring plants prikopat pritenyayut or short cut.Plants are planted early, as soon as the soil.

For 20-30 days before planting currants conduct continuous cultivation of the soil: line the plot, make, depending on the fertility level of 8-10 kg / m2 (up to 20), rotted manure or compost, 50-70 g (200) of superphosphate, 35-45 g of potassium sulfate and 20-30 g / m2 potassium chloride.Potassium chloride should be replaced with ash (100-150 g / m2).If necessary, make lime (300-800 g / m2).But for better absorption of the battery plants to make better known in advance.The fertilizer is distributed evenly over the soil surface, and a portion of a bayonet shovels dug to a reservoir turnover.

Regardless of the timing of planting currant planting hole is usually prepared in the fall - 2-3 weeks, so that the soil in them settled and evaporated chlorine and harmful substances are made with manure.Planting pits dug more deeply, the worse the soil.Recommended dimensions of the pit:. Width 50-60 cm, depth 40-50 cm These values ​​should be 1.5-2 times larger than the size of the root system of seedlings.

At the bottom of the pit discard the upper fertile layer of soil and mix it with fertilizers: 1-1.5 buckets of compost or rotted manure, 200-300 g of superphosphate, 40-50 g of potassium sulfate and 300 g of ash.This phosphorus and potassium reserves will last for several years ahead.To improve aeration can also bring peat 1.5-2 buckets.For horse manure it is recommended to add any organic residues (sawdust, straw, etc.).

on acidic soils (pH below 4.5) in the planting hole is required to make a 100-200 g of ground limestone.If the soil is non-acidic, it takes a bit of lime, mainly to neutralize the acidity of applied mineral fertilizers.Dose twice reduce lime in the case when using ash (ash containing lime) instead of the potassium salt.many substances containing calcium suitable for liming the soil: hydrated lime (lime, hydrated in a small amount of water), marl, ground chalk, dolomite flour, peat ash.Solid material is crushed and sieved through a sieve with openings of 2.3 mm.In light soils gives better results dolomite powder, containing, in addition to calcium, magnesium and more.

The planting hole is never added to the mineral nitrogen fertilizer.It is better to give a dressing after the plants take root and spring finally touched in growth.

After planting, the lower, less fertile layer of soil scatter around the area.Gradually, under the influence of fertilizer and proper handling malostrukturnaya soil will be domesticated.

Planting material

crucial landing blackcurrant is the quality of planting material.Grown from good seedling plants begin to bear fruit in the second year after planting.Planting material must be purebred and free of the most dangerous pests and diseases, so must be purchased seedlings in nurseries and farms, with a corresponding certificate of quality for the source material.It is desirable that the seedlings were obtained from the rehabilitated queen (super-elite and elite).Such seedlings are more expensive, but the costs are justified.

Most often used for planting cuttings or two years of strong seedlings currant, which can be attributed to the first or second commercial grade according to the standard.

Shoots currant seedlings with open root system must be free of leaves and cut up to 25-30 cm. Plants with leaves appear, of course, more attractive, but they have large black currant, and after digging a large leaf surface to evaporate a lot of moisture.This much dried up shoots and roots of the plant, which will inevitably impact on their survival and viability.Implementation of seedlings with closed root system can be with leaves and stem without shortening.Seedlings should be nepodsushennye, with well-formed buds unblown, without mechanical damage.

In accordance with the technical requirements of the currant seedlings are divided into two sorts of commodities.(Table.)

Feature commercial varieties

Indicators

Characteristics and norms for commodity grades

First

Second

Varietal chistotv,% not less

100

100

Age seedlings years

1-2

1-2

root system: lignification

full

full

color of bark

from light to dark brown

number of roots, pieces.Still

have an extensive root system

4

3

in gustomochkovatoy

not counted

the length of the root system:

have branched

20

15

in gustomochkovatoy

15

20

overground part:

number of shoots, pieces.not less than:

2-year seedlings

3

2

includingvarieties of currants slabovetvyaschiesya

1

1

1-year seedlings

1

1

diameter of the base of the aerial part, see, at least:

plants bare-root,

1,0

0,8

2-year

plants bare-root,

0,8

0,6

1 -year

seedlingswith closed root system,

0,8

0,6

2-year

seedlings with closed root system,

0,6

0,5

1-year

shoot length after trimming, see, at least

30

25

not allowed contamination seedlings CECIDOPHYOPSIS RIBIS, steklyannitsey, aphids, currant borers, scale insects, parasitic nematodes, sprout midge and quarantine objects.

Age currant seedlings determine when grown from hardwood cuttings in the number of years of growth in the nursery;when propagated by layering and green cuttings - with the increase in liquor or rooting in the conditions of artificial fog.

With the defeat of mildew crop tops obligatory shoots.

When transporting planting material seedling roots need to keep from drying out, for that they should be shut down with a damp burlap or sacking, packaged in foil, and delivery to the place immediately open up and pour abundantly.If it is found that the seedlings strongly dried up, they are immersed in water for 2-3 days, no more.

Preference should be given a two-year or annual plants, seedlings with a strong root system.

On light soils with sufficient moisture to a permanent place can be planted and rooted cuttings, however, moderate or heavy soil cuttings will not grow and develop.

Landing

As a rule, used in wide compacted planting scheme currant with 1.8-2 m spacing between rows.Distance among -1 m. When planting tall varieties and varieties with a spreading form of a thick bush and the distance between plants in the row is increased to 1.2-1.5 m. Varieties with a compact crown can be planted closer together.

Plants can be placed and ribbons.With this method the distance between plants is reduced to 0.5-0.8 m. The bushes sprouting merge into one continuous ribbon.

Such dense arrangement of plants allows to receive in the first years of high yields per unit area.This simplifies the control of weeds.However, take care of such a tape is more difficult, to the same due to the strong thickening plants easier the spread of pests and diseases.And when thickened planting crops with six years of age begin to decline rapidly.

In the first 2-3 years after planting currants between the rows can be grown vegetables, root vegetables, strawberries and flowers, placing them at a distance of 40-60 cm from the bushes - it promotes the cultivation of the soil.On very poor soils good results sowing of intercrop legumes: peas, beans and lupins.

The area is recommended to be planted 3-4 varieties of different ripening.

Planting seedlings of black currant and pruning at planting

Before planting the roots of seedlings lightly pruned (damaged roots - up to a healthy place) and dipped in a mash with clay.Black currant obliquely planted with a deep and 8-12 cm.

When inclined planting buried stem buds give strong vertical shoots, by which quickly formed a bush and powerful adventitious roots that are easily formed on the recessed portion of the stem plants will provide strong growthand high productivity currant.Shallow planting leads to the fact that the plant grows as a small tree, and will continue to be short-lived and not very fruitful.

In heavy clay soils should be planted bushes not deep.When planting the roots very deep into the soil layer, which does not penetrate and heat the air, the root system stops the growth and partially dies.In

if groundwater is located close to the surface, black currant planted in ridges or mounds meter width.

Immediately after planting the plants necessarily shorten, leaving 2-3 buds on each shoot.

When planting the roots of plants carefully straighten, so that they are not bent upwards, and the top covered with earth humus horizon, gradually compacting the soil.Then the seedling slightly shaken to the ground uniformly filled all the space between the back and had no void.