biotechnical methods of pest control based on the use of chemical substances (pathogens, hormones) or physical stimuli to attract or repel harmful insects.The most effective and scientifically advanced way to control garden pests is to use Fero-monnyhlovushek.Immediately should be noted that they, unlike many other devices that have a selective effect, which significantly reduces the likelihood of destruction of beneficial insects.
operating principle of this type of trap is based on a strong effect on the body of the insect substances which are sex hormones - pheromones.In the last century the French scientist entomologist JA Fabre, watching moths pear Saturnia, noted an interesting feature: the females are able to attract the males, and the males fly to them with a very great distance in excess of several kilometers.Later it was found that during mating the females secrete specific substances, which are called sex pheromones.Scientists were able to artificially create, synthesize the sex pheromone
Sex pheromones are also called Popov attractants, and their range is now in the hundreds of names for different garden pests.Each preparatnaya form of sex pheromone has its marking.For example, to combat the codling moth established drug CP-MC.The first two marking letters refer to the Latin name of the pest, in the case of codling moth (Carpocdpsa pomonetta Z), Today there are pheromone preparations to fight against east moth, grozdevoy, omnivorous, rose, fruit, peach, mottled gold, mesh,bud and green oak leaf roller, gypsy moth, striped fruit moth, nun moth, apple and currant steklyannitsami, codling moth and plum, lower side-miner moth zygaenidae and many other garden pests.
There are two basic ways to deal with zreditelyami using sex pheromones.The first method is called "samtsovoo vacuum", and its operating principle is illustrated by such pests as codling moth.
Pheromone traps are a valuable and effective way of controlling pests, as can significantly reduce or eliminate the use of chemical remedies
action of the sex pheromone of the drug based on the fact that the first generation of male moth appears in nature a little earlier females inAfter flowering garden.At the same time in the trees hang traps with pheromone of the codling moth, the males fly to the call of the smell, and fall into the trap.Thus, even before the appearance of females in nature this pest manages to catch the principal amount of the males, which significantly reduces the percentage of fertilization of females laying their eggs, and the emergence of new generations of the pest.The effectiveness of the traps is extremely high: one trap for 5-6 apples during the growing season so able to clear the garden of the moth, that next year the number of damaged fruits of its units.
Pheromone traps against codling moth post at the end of the flowering apple trees, before the advent of the first male codling moth 3-5 pieces on sale with 10 apple trees.The success of the pheromones in many respects depends on the number and location of their traps in the trees.It is important at what height placed traps.Most males catches in those traps that are hung at a height of 3/4 of the tree crown.That is, at the height of 3 m apple traps should be placed at a height of 2-2.3 m from the surface of the earth.Featuring a trap inside the crown on the south side of the tree so that the end portions of them were turned in the direction of the prevailing winds in the area.It is important to ensure that the wind quickly carried the smell that attracts the males into a trap.Distance action pheromone present in the trap, is large enough -. 50 m
consumable pheromone is very limited, and traps are attractive to males, even when evaporated to 90 % pheromone.Under natural conditions, the action of pheromones is saved and a half months, so in those places where codling moth develops two generations, it is recommended to hang fresh summer trap before each generation of butterflies.It should also be noted that at high infestation of garden pest traps should be changed frequently, since the degree of capture of males can drop significantly due to purely mechanical dirt trap adhesive surface adhered insects.In the fight against a number of pests the way "Samtsova second vacuum" is very effective.Thus it is possible to deal with currant steklyannitsey, lower side-miner moth zygaenidae, leaf rollers, and many other pests.
Action on sex pheromones of insect pests continues to be studied.Today pheromone preparations are used for pest control and for monitoring their behavior.With the use of pheromone products, you can set the start of the flight of the pests, its duration, numerical accumulation of pests in the garden, the number of generations produced by them, is the best time to conduct defensive operations, and many other things that may be useful to deal effectively with these or other types of pests.
second way to use pheromone traps is based on the effect of disorientation male insect pests.All the trees in the garden are posted pheromone evaporators or bait, releasing the smell of females.This interrupts the smell the smell of the living female, available in the garden, and distracting males.As a result, the vast majority of females do not mate, they are unfertilized and thus lay neoplodotvoren-WIDE eggs that are killed.The best results, this method made in the fight against the plum moth.The bait in this case are so-called pheromone ring of large diameter rubber tubing.This ring is cut with one hand and pull on the tree branch.Pheromone, filling the ring gradually erode and cause disorientation effect males.Sex pheromones are allowed for widespread use, non-toxic, safe for humans and animals, harmless to beneficial insects, do not pollute the environment and environmentally completely neutral.
very important that pheromone traps and lures used at the same time in all areas of gardening association or all of the gardens of the village, as the focal use of traps, ie, hanging them in some areas, and trees can cause the accumulation of a large number of pests males it isgarden where the traps are hung.In this garden as a result of repeated mating and fertilization will significantly increase the number of pending pest eggs that will lead to an increase in the degree of damage to the plants and fruits.The use of sexual pheromones is one of the ways to reduce the amount of pesticides used or even complete abandonment of them.
How to Make Pheromone traps
simplest and most effective kind of fairy-trap is a trap Romona deltoid shape.For its production of the cardboard blank is folded along the fold lines, creases carefully smooth down with a hard object, ready to trap was shaped like a triangular prism with sharp edges.At the top of doing a awl or punch two holes in which the wire is threaded.The wire fixes pot shape, and at the same time it is attached to the trap tree.On the inside unpainted portion of the preform, which forms the bottom of the trap 5 is applied, the adhesive applied to the workpiece in a plastic bottle.Then glue is applied to the workpiece a second inner side of the workpiece and uniformly triturated adhesive between the surfaces of both workpieces.Thereafter, the preform and reformats disconnect adhesive so that it came on the side walls of the trap.The blank is folded with the adhesive on the folds.Above, where the trap edges together to form an edge, they fastened with staples or crosslinked.The ends of the trap, forming a triangle, folded inside and in the middle of the adhesive surface lay the bait - a rubber tube filled with pheromone.Tube with pheromone can also be hung on the wires inside the trap.
special group of biological pesticides are hemosteripyanty.Principle their effect on pests is based on the fact that they cause sterilization harmful insects, making impossible their fertilization and reproduction.Thus sterilized generation pests naturally dies without leaving progeny.If we consider that many pests output for the season to ten generations of offspring, the impact of chemo-sterilyantov able to significantly reduce the population of pests.There is an ongoing study of the impact of this
color yellow and white glue boards attracts insects that fly at them and stick to the adhesive layer.A serious drawback of this device is that they fall and beneficial insects
drug, showed the most promising use of chemosterilants when combined with sexual attractants (pheromone preparations). Yellow and white glue boards - uncomplicated device for controlling harmful insects, the principle of action is based on the fact that some of the colors are especially attractive to insects and among these colors, of course, lead yellow.During the observation, it was found that the yellow color effect on insects exciting: a yellow color flowers insects fly around better than flowers growing next to the other painting.This finding has been used to create a glued yellow plates, which flock to insects and stick to the adhesive layer.They are quite effective in a cluster of a certain insect species at the site, such as cabbage butterflies, and flies in the crop of cabbage, as well as for use in greenhouses and greenhouses.A significant drawback: - of lei boards is that they are killed not only harmful, but also useful insects.
light traps used borbe.-rotiv leaf roller moths, striking - her great damage to fruit trees, and a five-point -rotiv hawk.Just as in the case of the glue planks, the main not-- remainder of the means of struggle is that the die and beneficial insects.A promising tool for biological-gzpy garden are potent Biologicals, are in their LTI infectious agents!from pests.They can cause fatal disease in epidemic certain pests species, leading to their death.The most well-known and tested biological agents are as follows: Bacillus thuringiensis - powder sprayed against caterpillars of butterflies, pests of fruit, vegetables and ornamental plants.
Granulose Virus - applied by spraying, it acts on the larvae of pests of fruit trees (codling moth and plum).It is necessary to strictly observe the terms biological applications.
Parasitaere Nematoden - the only effective drug against larvae Skosarev furrowed.They watered the contaminated soil.The best conditions at the time of application: soil temperature above 15 ° C and moderate humidity.