Growing seedlings

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

apple trees can be propagated by seeds and vegetatively.From the seeds of wild and cultivated apples grown rootstocks for grafting them different varieties.Sowing seeds obtained by artificial breeding or open pollination, are also used in the breeding of new varieties of apple.

Vegetative reproduction (buds, cuttings) are most common in the practice of gardening, because it makes it possible to keep the signs of cultivar grafted onto appropriate rootstocks.Less commonly, mainly in breeding rootstocks Klopova use cuttings.

as vigorous seed rootstock seedlings using Central Russian varieties (anise, Borovinka, perry Moscow and most often ordinary Antonovka), less forest apple, Malus Prunifolia (Gudulu) and their hybrids.In home gardens gardeners can experience sustainable local seedlings and rootstocks moderate growth (paradizka Budagovs-one and its hybrids, as well as other dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks new forms).

experienced gardeners may itself grow seedlings on the site.To do this, the seeds from

the fruit of hardy local zoned large-

Fig.Preparing cuttings for inoculation: a - young shoot (dashes shown in the cut);b - cutting prepared for budding

Fig.Preparing cuttings for inoculation: a - young shoot (dashes shown in the cut);b - cutting prepared for budding

fetal small-fruited apple or used as rootstock, from the autumn it is best to sow in the ground.Then they will be provided with the natural conditions of germination.But the seeds of winter varieties (inter alia common Antonovka, anise gray) is removed from the fruit in mid-winter.In this case, they have to go presowing obrabotku- stratification.Partly stratified seeds in the fruit, if supported in the loft-room temperature is low enough.However, in the pulp of the fruit are inhibitors (substances that constrain development), so taken out of the fruits of the seeds soaked for two or three days in running water (to get rid of inhibitors), or the water is changed daily.The swollen seeds are mixed with a triple in terms of the number water capacity of the substrate (using sand, sawdust, peat litter, expanded clay, slag), moisturize.You can place the seeds in open plastic bags, put into boxes.Every two weeks the seeds stirred, if necessary, moisten.

Initially maintained at a temperature of 3 to 5 ° C.As soon as the first shoots (70 days), the temperature is reduced to 0 or minus 1 ° C (boxes buried in the snow, or put in the fridge), and so contain the seeds until planting.

Duration stratification determine the conditions of formation of seeds (from flowers to pollinate fruit removal, as well as storage and ripening fruit in the loft-room);and it depends on high-quality accessories: small-fruited varieties of seed (type Gudulu) up to 100 days for the large-fruited - up to 130 days.

from conditions of seed development depends on germination, which can be determined by staining germ (3 samples of 100 pieces) for three hours indigo (concentration 1: 500 or 1: 1000) or simply proraschivaya seeds in Petri plates accelerated by temperaturefrom 20 to 23 ° C.Calculating the percentage of germinated (or painted) seeds, their germination.From germination percentage and grade seeding rate depends on (it varies from 15 to 40 kg / ha).Seeds are sown to a depth of 3 cm (on light soils - 4 cm).The distance between plants in a row 8 cm between rows - 10 cm. In the spring sowing can begin very early.The seedlings during the summer a few times (depending on the state) are fed, watered periodically weed.With good development shtambikov thickness of the autumn up to 1 cm (with a pencil).Then in the same year can start budding (grafting "dormant" kidney-eye) and two

Fig.budding technique: a - T-sections for the panel;b - the removal of the flap;in - paste and trim panel

year grow seedlings grafted desirable varieties for planting in the garden.

budding begin in late July-early August and continue 20 days until the bark on the rootstock is well separated.It is the most common method of propagation of apple.

Along with budding there are other vaccines: spring grafting cuttings (for bark, vrasshep, vpriklad, improved kopulirovka, etc...), In the winter grafting rootstocks harvested in autumn and stored in a basement.