Caring for apple

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

aisle autumn dig.Whereas it is necessary to maintain soil fertility, make organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.

With the approach of frost tree trunks soil mulching with humus, peat, compost.Spud trees, their trunks tied spruce branches (spruce branches), tops down for protection against damage rabbits and rodents.Sometimes used for this purpose cane, parchment strips (straw and only unusable).Trunks of trees under the age of 5 years bleach solution of chalk, and older-lime mortar (3 kg svezhegashenoy lime, 1 kg of clay per 10 liters of water).The solution may be to add 2 cups of skim milk, 100 g of heated wood glue, 500 g of copper sulfate.Expanding into the hole poisoned bait.The thaw should be several times trample down the snow around the trees.During the winter it is necessary to protect the garden from birds, to renew the bait.Protecting the garden from rodents must be at krayney.mere in TE

chenie five years until it will get stronger and ogrubeet bark.

Figure: 9. The formation of the

crown of young trees.The dotted line marked deleted branches

young trees should be carried out the formation of the crown a year, seeking to make it a solid, compact, well-lit, comfortable care.Wood with well-formed crown before entering into bearing more

yield durable and hardy than not subjected to trimming.Apple trees are planted two-year trees that have just laid the foundation of the crown.In early spring, before the buds swell, the second year after planting is carried out the first pruning.It is necessary to restore the correspondence between the above-ground part of seedling and root system, damaged during transplantation, as well as for the formation of the crown, which began in the nursery, and enhance growth.

obligatory cutting of the vertical growth of the tree to escape restrictions in height and form side shoots.A well-developed trees leaves are usually vertical escape (conductor, leader) length of 40 cm, measured from the base of the top of the skeletal (core, othodyashey directly from the trunk) branch.At seedling form 8 skeletal branches (the varieties with pyramidal crown, there should be less).All other shoots are shortened to a length of 15 cm. They are beginning to thicken the trunk and subsequently transformed into fruit branches.Pruning should be done on the outside or the inside (for the varieties with a spreading crown) kidney, slightly slanted, not cutting too much wood on the kidney, but also not leaving stumps.Within four or five years, you can create a basic skeleton

crown.Each spring (before bud swelling), last year's growth on the branches cut by one-third of its length.This promotes the formation of fruit pruning branches and stimulates growth.

for proper formation of the crown of trees is necessary to perform the following basic rules: the lower branches of the skeletal cut poorly, upper more strongly developed side - stronger than the weak;if the skeletal branches are equal in strength development, the lower of which is cut less than the upper.The degree of shortening the shoots depends on the varietal characteristics, strength, growth and development of a particular tree.Stimulate growth pruning is necessary to the extent that it is not delayed fruiting.

skeletal branches, which form the basis of the crown, are located from each other at a distance of 15 cm away from the trunk at an obtuse angle, and the barrel rises above all the main branches.

All shoots that grow on the branches of the bends and branches extending vertically upwards when they are not needed to form the crown completely cut - on the ring (the ring - is thickened at the base of the branch location).With the right vase life branches on the ring injuries are usually very quickly grow.Sections were more than 2 cm in diameter, covered with putty or garden mash of clay.

Along with described a widespread system of formation of crowns can recommend other methods.In the northern and eastern parts of the North-West is useful stlantsy used in Siberia, and in areas with favorable conditions for growing apple trees in addition to the bulk crowns - flat, compact (veretenovidnuyu- spindle bush plane - different palmettes).

cropping, bending, tilting, interlacing branches produce solid fruit wall.Varieties grafted on silnoroslyh, slaboroslyh, clonal rootstocks and seed use shtamboobrazovateli (inoculate the test in the crown of the resistant variety).In addition to pruning and cutting branches in home gardens, the garter used their deviation wooden spacers to correct malformed crown, enhance growth or fruiting.Use and summer (July) crop, growing shoots pinched, Bending them to drooping or horizontal position (which increases the fruiting) vylomku extra shoots, tops and root shoots.

Early spring apple with spruce branches removed, resume whitewash trunks.When thawed earth, young apple razokuchivayut not to podop-

RELA bark.Sometimes rabbits gnaw trunks of apple trees (in the form of a closed ring).Then, make vaccination a "bridge" or cut off the trunk

Fig.Vaccination bridge: a - damaged trees;b - wood prepared for grafting;in - grafted tree;g - vaccination regrown escape;d - grafting shoots;e - grafting a piece of bark

at the lower boundary of the damage, smooth out the cut garden knife, cover the garden pitch, or natural drying oil.If damaged stalk dormant buds start to grow, and by the autumn give a significant boost, then grow back shoots form a new crown.

making vaccination a "bridge", inserted into the bark cuttings in several places on the circumference of the barrel at one end below, and the other above the wound.

Fig.Vaccination bridge: a - damaged trees;b - wood prepared for grafting;in - grafted tree;g - vaccination regrown escape;d - grafting shoots;e - grafting a piece of bark

at the lower boundary of the damage, smooth out the cut garden knife, cover the garden pitch, or natural drying oil.If damaged stalk dormant buds start to grow, and by the autumn give a significant boost, then grow back shoots form a new crown.

making vaccination a "bridge", inserted into the bark cuttings in several places on the circumference of the barrel at one end below, and the other above the wound.

graft is then tied with adhesive tape or plastic and coated with a garden putty, harbor wet moss and wrapped with burlap.If the mouse gnawed trunks of apple trees and damage detected in a timely manner, the trees tend to be saved, just paint over the wounds.Mice only chew the bark and cambium almost no affect, ie the fabric on which move nutrients and which provides a healing paradise.

for: United trunks coated with putty clay, mullein and lime, clay or garden pitch, obvyazyvayuttryapkami.Koseni damaged areas covered by the new bark.

apply herbicides (diuron, dalapon et al.) For weed control.In early spring, before the emergence of weeds sprayed with the soil 80% strength wettable powder di damage in a concentration of 0.6% (60 g per 1 liter of water), the rate of drug flow of 30 g per 100 m2.By sprouting weeds (preferably with good soil moisture) can be used 85% -s soluble powder dalapon.It is used not later than 30 days prior to harvesting in the field of weeds in the gardens of not less than three-couple-rehlet a concentration of 1% (100 g of water Yul).When the soil dries out, making fertilizer and

tread for digging tree trunks.Along with mineral fertilizers on enough fertile soils (and if the fall of organic fertilizers were not included) are laid out around the tree compost (10 kg per 1 m) at a distance of 20 cm from the trunk.If you make a fertilizer, then a young tree with a diameter of around-trunk circle of 1 m is sufficient 50 grams of nitrogen fertilizer, with a diameter of 4m -.. 200 g, etc.

must try to scatter fertilizer by around-trunk circumference of a circle and dig the soil at once, so they werea layer where the fibrous roots actively sucking nutrients.Garden fork when digging put an edge to a tree, radially around-trunk circle.If you place them wide side to the tree, the roots can be very damaging.soil digging depth of the trunk should not exceed 12 cm, to the periphery of the circle around-trunk gradually increases and at a distance of 1.5 m from the trunk can reach 20 cm. After fertilization and digging tree trunks mulch (cover) peat or humus to retain moisturein soil and drown the weeds.Despite this, often it has tree trunks in the summer and 2 times more hoe and, if required (for growth

less than 40 cm), to carry out Zpodkormki.Feed up an apple tree before and after flowering, as all stocks fall on flowering tree consumes.Mineral fertilizers (solution or dry) or slurry (1 part to 3 parts water) introduced into the grooves to a depth of 20 cm before flowering, flowering immediately after and 4 weeks after.At the 5-year-old tree it takes 3 solution pails, 10-year-old - 6 buckets.Fertilizing is best done after a rain or watering.Mineral fertilizers make two feeding: the first - in July, when laid flower buds, nitrogen and potash at the rate of 3 kg of nitrogen and 5 kg of potassium per one hundred square meters, the second - a month (in August) phosphorus-but-potash - 6 kg per one hundred square meters.Weakened trees at the beginning of vegetation provide additional foliar application is better in cooler weather 0.5% solution of urea (50 g per 10 liters of water).After 2 weeks of feeding is repeated after 2 weeks spend it again.In addition, the weak young flowering trees, it is desirable to remove (or thinned) flowers to reduce fruiting and strengthen growth and on-deciduous.In one fruit should be not less than 30 leaves.Then, on young trees in fruit ovaries and future become only 20% of the flowers (and on fruiting and that

less - up to 10%).If the tree foliage is weak, the fruit is formed Yeshe less;ovary can all crumble.

In dry summers, especially on sandy soils, apple trees should be watered before bud break, 20 days after the end of flowering, 20 days before the harvest and during the leaf fall, but not during the period of ripening (fruits from excess moisture burst).

to ensure normal growth and fruiting of fruit trees need regular fertilizing.

With a lack of nitrogen in the soil with fruit trees do not grow well, the leaves turn yellow in color, ovary crumble, despite the good pollination of flowers.Phosphorus deficiency leads to poor formation of fruit buds and fruit do not get the proper color.With a lack of potassium poorly developed young shoots and buds.Calcium is needed for various plants intracellular processes and serves to neutralize the acids in plant tissue, and is to build pits in fruit.

To ensure fruit plants with all the necessary nutrients, making organic and mineral fertilizers.

as organic fertilizers are applied manure and various types of composts.

manure contribute each year.Application rate can be increased to 60 kg per one hundred square meters, in which case the manure is made in a year, alternating with mineral fertilizers.Manure applied in the fall under the deep autumn plowing alone or with mineral fertilizers: superphosphate 4 kg per one hundred square meters, and the potassium salt of 3,5 kg per one hundred square meters.Nitrogen fertilizers are making surface in two periods - the early spring before growth and in the first half of the growing season on the basis of: ammonium nitrate, 3 kg per one hundred square meters, and ammonium sulfate, 5 kg per one hundred square meters.

phosphate and potash fertilizers in the fertile garden embedded in a specially dug grooves to a depth of 40 cm on the circumference of the circle around-trunk.

Apply fertilizers in liquid form: cow dung, diluted with water 10 times, slurry - 3 times.Under one fruit trees should be made up to 20 cans of liquid organic fertilizer, 10 of them at the beginning of flowering buckets and 5 buckets in late June and early July.In the liquid organic fertilizer added fertilizer to 30 g per bucket.

In acidic soils lime introduced in an amount of from 2 to 8 kg per hundred, depending on the acidity of the soil.

Caring for fruit trees achieves a uniform distribution of fruit formations on the crown, maintaining the trunk and branches in a healthy state, and thereby increase productivity and lengthening the productive period in the life of the fruit trees.In case of damage to the trunk or branches of various methods of treatment, and their aging rejuvenate trees.Warn frost damage tree, protect against disease and pests.

For proper measures care of fruit trees need to know the biology of fruit trees, which makes it possible to correctly apply the gardener or other care techniques.This applies particularly to pruning, as well as vaccination, pereprivivki and rejuvenate fruit trees, which require great care in carrying out the work, taking into account the state of the trees.

When caring for the crown are of great importance during trimming and pruning method depends on the age and varietal characteristics of fruit trees.Apply cropping, or shortening and thinning.

When thinning delete entire branches;distinguished: 1) decimation of growth of branches;2) thinning of fruit branches (spurs).

Pruning annual shoots promotes the formation of lateral shoots and thickening branches.Due to the annual pruning of annual shoots krona plant becomes compact, thicker main boughs.

Without trimming buds located at the base of the shoots remain dormant and do shoots - leafless in large parts.With strong growth of shoots without pruning obtained long-legged, and at harvest branch Duck Down and can break off under the weight of the fruit.

Pruning annual shoots are used in the early fruiting and in the case of strong growth.

Young fruit trees are usually not pruned, and if cut, it is weak.At 12 years old fruit tree produces a large number of branches and tree krone reaches full strength development.Leaving the tree without cutting it provides strong growth and development of a strong root system.It applies only removal (thinning) branches that interfere with the main branches of the tree to grow.

Shortening the one-year shoots of the varieties of apple, fruit-bearing on timber precedes

sponding year may lead to a very strong reduction in yield.

This type of fruiting in the young branches have variety pippin Lithuanian, robin, to some extent, cinnamon and many wild species, especially Siberian and Chinese apple and close to them the type of cultivars.

Since fruiting wood in the previous year mainly determines the annual harvests, all methods of care, contributing to the tab of fruit buds on long shoots, provide high yields.

Pruning these grades is reduced mainly to the thinning branches, so as not to disturb the steady type of fruiting.

Grades Borovinka and abundant fruit on the branches of fruit between 4 and 10 mm;fruit twigs shorter length do not form fruit buds or form they are very rare.On the other hand, a very long fruit branches (from 200 to 500 mm) form a strong end fruit buds.Fruiting branches 10 mm fruit in a year, and every year is very rare, so it is necessary to take measures to ensure the change of fruiting spurs.

as measures to facilitate the creation of a certain ratio of fruit-bearing and non-fruit-bearing fruit

twigs recommend moderate pruning a year of crop failure, aiming to stimulate growth and the introduction of nitrogen fertilizer in early spring, before the completion of the growth of outlets.

In adults, fruit-bearing trees with poor growth is necessary to apply the crop, which would have caused the growth of the terminal and lateral branches.Along with trimming applied improved care for the soil, make organic and mineral fertilizers, carefully carry out all measures to combat diseases and pests.

Minting (crop by 6-year-old wood) is produced when growth slowed or completely absent in the trees.

Rejuvenation fruit trees produce between cessation of growth and reduce yield.Rejuvenation conducted by pruning more than half their length, resulting in the formation of numerous, powerful development of shoots, of which form a new crown.