Fighting against diseases and pests of apple
Pests and diseases cause enormous damage to apple trees.They dramatically reduce productivity (apple blossom weevil), marketability of the fruit (moth), winter hardiness and the state of the tree (sucker, codling moth, silkworms, Aporia Crataegi, scab) and TD
fight against pests and diseases in the garden has its own peculiarities, whichdue to many years of growing fruit crops on the same site.
whole system of protective measures in apple plantations subordinated to one problem - getting stable yields of high quality fruit.
To protect plants from pests and diseases, there are different methods:.. Agro-technical and organizational-economic, mechanical, biological, chemical, quarantine, etc.
special place in pest control given to agro-technical measures.In the gardens, where agricultural machinery at a high level, the plants have a high viability, are more resistant to diseases and pests.Agrotechnical activities contribute to the partial destruction of the pests, prevent infectious diseases.Cutting t
to combat diseases and pests should be borne in mind the placement of different apple varieties ripening in one place of growth, since almost ripe summer apples will interfere with treatment with pesticides against the second generation of codling moth.Grades strongly and slaboporazhaemye scab is also advisable to place in different locations.The mechanical method of struggle still retains its relevance.
collection of fruit drop, affected moth, and removing it from the garden is an effective technique.Good results are obtained by shaking off and destroying apple tree blossom weevil beetles, removal of winter nests Aporia Crataegi, pad trapping bands on trunks of trees against codling moth and apple trees blossom weevil beetles, collecting caterpillars silkworms on young trees.
most promising - biological method, which is the use of living organisms or their metabolic products against pests and diseases.One of the directions of this method is the use of predatory and parasitic insects, which significantly reduce the pest population.The suppression of the number of garden pests contribute to predatory insects.So, beetles koktsinellidy (all kinds of ladybugs) consume aphids.Coccinella septempunctata eats aphids, two-point - aphids and sucker.Beneficial insects should be strongly protected.When treatments with pesticides must remember that trichlorfon, malathion and Sevin destroy aphids ladybirds, rogor non-poisonous for eggs (between the end of May-beginning of June), harmless Bordeaux mixture, captan, zineb.Aphids feed on the larvae of hover flies, larvae zolotoglazok.Krasotel beetle destroys the gypsy moth caterpillars.Parasitic insects do not kill the victim, and eat it.These include riders, reminiscent of small wasps, including rider oviphages Trichogramma, which is used to combat the codling moth.Against garden pests, in particular apple trees are used fungi, bacteria and viruses.Fungus boverin plodozhorok used against bacterial entobakterin drug is effective against codling moths, Aporia Crataegi, moth, leaf rollers, gypsy and ringed silkworm, polyhedrin virus - against gypsy moth.Widespread use of microbiological preparations obtained in the fight against rodents.Microbiological method is based on the infection by bacteria feed rodents mouse or rat fever.
For biological control also applies to involvement in the gardens of insectivorous birds and many other factors.
main method of protecting plants from pests and diseases continues to be a chemical, t. E. The use of pesticides.There are three ways chemicals are: spraying, dusting and layout of poisoned baits.
The system measures the chemical protection special place is given to the rodents in early spring on dormant buds.These treatments are directed against pests - sucker, aphids, ringed moth, codling moth, Aporia Crataegi openly wintering on trees, and bolezney- scab and fruit rot of apples.Spraying should be done very carefully, both the tree and the soil in the near-wellbore band.Nitrafen applied at a concentration of 4% or 1% DNOK-.In the presence of pests and diseases nitrafen can be used annually, DNOC - once in 2 years.If the number of overwintering stages of pests listed above small, the anti-scab best effect is produced by spraying to eradicate the 3% Bordeaux liquid on the green cone.If you have an apple-tree blossom weevil before flowering, stems in the nomination phase, avoiding laying, spraying is carried out one of the chemicals: 0.2% -x chlorophos, phos-famida, trihlormetafosa-3, 0.3% strength Metaphos.Immediately after flowering spray against scab and codling can be carried out one of the substitutes Bordeaux fluid (Zineb, captan, ftalan, copper oxychloride) with the addition of insecticides.According to our observations, substitutes Bordeaux fluid weaker effect on scab than herself, besides, copper oxychloride leaves on leaves and fruit damage in the form of a grid.Properly cooked Bordeaux liquid (neutral reaction) can be mixed with hlorofosom.You can not use liquid Bordeaux When small-spraying.
12 days after the first spraying against moth carry out the second and, if necessary, combining it with the treatment against scab.The second generation of codling moth in our conditions appear very rarely, only in extremely hot and dry years.To avoid habituation to one pest poison, it is necessary to alternate chemicals with dissimilar modes of action on pests.
As a complement to toxic chemicals, and sometimes replace them, you can use insecticidal and fungicidal plants, water infusions and decoctions, which are detrimental effect on pests.Infusions and decoctions of plants to light quickly lose their toxicity and do not accumulate in the treated plants.
insecticidal and fungicidal plants available, they grow in the wild, are ornamental or vegetable crops.Collect them should be in dry weather.When using plant rhizomes and bulbs harvested in early spring or after ripening seeds aboveground part - in the phase of flowering.Widespread among amateur gardeners have received infusions and decoctions of the aerial parts and roots of tomato edible against leaf-eating pests and moth;wormwood (aerial part) against the moth;tops of potatoes against aphids and mites silken;Tobacco against aphids, sucker, codling moth;Datura ordinary aerial part, roots black henbane, onions and garlic against aphids, sucker, ticks silken.
The most common pests are the apple moth, sucker, codling moth, apple blossom weevil, green apple aphid, ringed silkworm, Aporia Crataegi and rodents, from disease - scab and fruit rot.
plodozhorka- apple tree is the most common pest.Fighting moth can only be successful in the application of a whole range of activities.To destroy the moth larvae hibernating in the autumn cultivation between rows and loosening tree trunks.Trunks and skeletal branches clean of dead bark and burned.
sorting facilities, temporary sheds, canopies, containers, piles of plant debris disinfected 0.7% solution or chlorophos rogora or the 1% trihlormetafosa-3.In the winter storage box grid pull out to prevent the escape of butterflies.Carry out the regular collection wormy fruit drop, with immediate removal of it from the garden.
effective way to protect against the moth is a strip of trapping bands on trunks of fruit-bearing apple trees.Trapping 25 cm wide belt made of burlap or heavy wrapping paper and put on trunks two feet from the ground.Belt, retreated to a centimeter from the upper edge, tightly intercept twine, tie slightly weaker than the bottom side.Trapping belts are best cast during the care of the first generation moth cocoon on.Simple trapping zone must view every 8 days, select and destroy the caterpillars.
Because chemical control measures for the first spray (early hatching larvae) used one of the following chemicals: rogor (Foz famid) - 40%, Sevin - 80%, phosalone - 35% trichlorfon - 80%, trihlormetafos-3 - 50% ftalofos - 20%, each at a concentration of 0.2% (20 g in 10 liters water), ftalofosa concentration of 0.3%.The interval between the first and second sprinkles is dependent on the applied pesticide: sevin 18 days ftalofos phosalone and 16 days, 12 days phosphamide, trichlorfon, trihlormetafos 3 to 8 days.To increase the efficacy urea is added about 1% of the total solution (100 g of urea per 10 liters of pesticide solution).Poisons and concentration of the second spraying the same as that of the first.
Pesticides used against codling moth, do not act on the scale insects and mites, and kill their natural enemies, so you should seek the minimum of their use.
With an average daily temperature above 20 ° C, a good result gives 1% entobakterin (100 g per 10 liters of water) with the addition of low-dose (2 g per 10 liters of water) of any insecticide (rogor, trichlorfon, trihlormetafos-3 and others).Entobakterin - bacterial biological drug that causes the disease of leaf-eating caterpillars.Timing of application is not limited.
In individual gardens against moth use different types of phytoncide plants such as wormwood.Mown grass or dry tarragon pour hot water in a ratio of 1 kg of grass per 1 liter of water.The barrel covered with a lid.The infusion can be applied the next day.Treat the trees at night.Before spraying infusion diluted five times.Processing begins immediately after flowering and repeat at 7 days for a month.In rainy windy effectiveness of spraying drops.
Tomato edible.For the preparation of insecticidal solution using shoots, roots, stepchildren, immature fruit.4 kg of chopped straw is boiled 30 minutes in 10 liters of water and the percolating: dissolved.Spraying every 10 liters of water taken and 3 l of broth was added 40 g of soap.
apple sucker.It hibernates in the egg stage on young shoots.Sucker develops in one generation.For its destruction more effectively eradicates spraying 4% -s nitrafenom to bud.Careful processing of all parts of the tree, especially its ends, allowing almost completely suppress the harmfulness of the pest.
second period when the larvae sucker focused on the tops burst kidneys and most vulnerable to poisons (stage of green cone), conduct spraying a pesticide: phosphamide - 40%, phosalone - 35%, metaphos - 20%, at a concentration of 0.2% (20 g in 10 liters water), trichlorfon - 0,2% malathion and - 0.3%.
We must remember that this period lasts only 3 days.Against adults sucker, during its full wing development coincides with the end of flowering, in individual gardens good effect fumigation garden tobacco smoke.This work is carried out at night in a quiet cloudy weather.Before fumigation okashivayut full of weeds, because of the winged animals can migrate to.Thick smoke kills sucker.
Between the trees are laid out pile raw straw or manure on top of poured 1.5 kg of tobacco dust or tobacco and light.Against sucker larvae on the green cones can be sprayed infusion and decoction of tobacco.To do this, take 400 g of dried tobacco waste (suckers, fragments of leaves, powder) and pushing two days in 10 liters of water.Filter and add another 10 L of water.Prior to use in the infusion every 10 liters are placed 40 g of soap prileplyaemosti best solution.For
broth 400 g of ground dry weight insist hours in 10 liters of water and boiled for two hours.After cooling filter.Before use, diluted with 10 l of water and 40 g of soap.
apple tree apple blossom weevil damage the buds.It helps spraying trees during the period from bud to bud exposure, during the transition beetles from wintering areas in the crown to the egg-laying females use one of the pesticides: trichlorfon in a concentration of 0.2% (20 g per 10 liters of water), 0.1%sevin -th, -th phosphamide 0.15%, 0.15% th trihlormetafos-3 metaphos at a concentration of 0.3%.
The system integrated protection sprays gardens need not determined by the number of the pest, and the power of flowering tree.With abundant flowering up to 15% of the remaining ovaries of the total number of flowers will give a full harvest.In this case, destructive measures can not hold.With a weak bloom fight the weevil is necessary.
In small gardens good results against weevil provide mechanical techniques.In the early-spring period shake beetles from the tree on the shields and destroy.This work should be carried out early in the morning, when the beetles are inactive.In early June, during the emergence of young adults put on the trunks of trapping bands in the form of bundles of straw, paper and others. In August, while the beetles did not have time to go down into the soil for the winter, the belt catching carefully remove and burn.
around the trunk make the trap of dry grass, where the beetles are arranged for the winter.raked and burned grass in late autumn.
codling moth overwinters in the stage of caterpillars.Sprinkle on the dormant buds 4% m nitrafe-rated (400 g per 10 liters of water) or the 1% DNOC (100 g per 10 liters of water) is almost completely destroys the overwintering larvae of moths.Before flowering, the presence of the pest of apple trees treated with one of the drugs: 0.2% solution of chlorophos or phosphamide or trihlormetafosa, or 0.3% solution of Metaphos.At this time, when the track exits the eggs to the surface and yet not forming pockets, it is most vulnerable.In warm weather (average temperature above 20 ° C) gives a good effect 1% entobakterin with the addition of 2 g per 10 liters of solution or chlorophos rogora.
good results infusion spraying trees, a decoction of the aerial parts of tobacco or wormwood.Codling moth caterpillars Nests can be easily removed by hand.
green apple aphid gives more than 10 generations.Aphid overwinters in the phase of small black testicles, which are located on one-year shoots from the buds.On dormant buds are sprayed 4% solution nitrafena or the 1% DNOC to kill overwintering eggs.
on the green cone against the hatch larvae were sprayed with one of the following poisons: phosphamide - 40%, Anita - 25%, metaphos - 20%, phosalone - 35% at a concentration of 0.2% (20 g per 10 liters of water), malathion -30% 0.3% concentration.Those poisons used against newly emerging colonies.
Under natural conditions, aphids destroying beetles and larvae of ladybugs, hover flies and zolotoglazok.
In a large number of aphids destroy parasites riders.Rider lays an egg into the aphid body whose larva feeds at her expense.
In individual gardens in the fight against aphids effective decoction of tobacco.To take a decoction of 400 g of dry grinding of raw material per 10 liters of water and insist night.Then boiled for 2 hours and filtered.Before use, the broth is diluted with 10 liters of water and 40 g of soap was added to 10 liters of broth.The solution is toxic to humans.
Aporia Crataegi affects all fruit crops.Winters in stage caterpillars in dry lumps folded leaves, tightly attached to the ends of the branches.The quickest and easiest way to deal with Aporia Crataegi - collection of nests wintering in the period from the end of the autumn leaf fall to bud in the spring.Winter nests Aporia Crataegi better not to destroy.They remain until spring in the bank.Spring Bank closes fine mesh.From banks fly parasites (apantelesy), and do not feed the caterpillars die.When eradicates spraying before bud nitrafenom or DNOC against the overwintering stages of chewing and sucking pests Aporia Crataegi caterpillars also killed.
Adult caterpillars good results are obtained by spraying 0.2% m hlorofosom.
Ringmail moth overwinters in the egg stage.In ringed silkworm so many natural enemies of pests, in our area more than 20, which destroy eggs, larvae and pupae.