Collection and storage of apples
Terms and fruit removal equipment have a big impact on their product quality and keeping quality.During active growth and ripening of apples is increased breathing, carried out through numerous stomata fetus.But over time, closer to the beginning of ripening, their number gradually decreased, and by the time the removable maturity they are completely closed cork fabric gas exchange ceases and the upper skin is covered with a special touch - oils, resins, which form the so-called waxy film.In biologically immature, but the shot or fallen apples, such a protective layer is formed, and the fruit even if short-term storage lose moisture, the top covers smorshivayutsya and quickly rot.Such storage apples are unsuitable.
Apples should be stored in a separate specially made cellar, where the entire period of storage at 3 ° C heat to maintain the temperature.The cellar must have a good supply and exhaust system, and not be eaten raw.During the summer, it must be well dried and disinfected with the help of whi
boxes or baskets of fruits put on the shelves in a row.Biologically matured, carefully removed and sorted the fruit can be stored in these conditions, a long period of time.Even Borovinka can be stored for up to half of November and autumn striped antonovka and all of January and half of February, even before, not to mention the other varieties: Wells star, orange, that can be stored until May.
Technique fruit removal. basic rule when removing the fruit is the fruit of careful handling.The most insignificant at first glance fetal damage can lead to decay during storage.The baskets are designed for picking fruit, from the inside sheathe cloth to avoid fruit damage by friction, or their impact on the basket wall.When removing the fruit is placed on the palm and rotated in the direction opposite to the slope by placing the index finger at the same time to the place of attachment of the peduncle to the spurs.Removing the fruit produced by a specially constructed ladders hands and plodosemnikami.shaking off the fruit is not allowed in any case.
sorting, grading, packaging .Apples are sorted into 3 classes: first, second, third, and marriage.
Class I fruit - typical in shape, well painted, with solid, not broken the stem diameter of 50 mm for round fruits and at least 45 mm for fruit oval, so that the fruits of the first grade have a maximum of three outgrowths of the skin, notgradoboin more than two tracks is not more than three weevil damage.In total, the number of injuries should not be more than five.
second grade selected fruits on the same grounds as the first grade, but with a smaller diameter - 40 and 35 mm, respectively, for round and oval fruits.Allowed for the selection of this sort of fruit with damage mentioned above, in the amount of no more than ten, and fruits with small lesions scab and sooty fungus.
In third grade selected fruits, equal in size Class II fruit, both typical and atypical shape.Valid fruits without peduncle.Traces of gradoboin can be no more than five, though overgrown.Healed punctures allowed in an amount of not more than two.Fruits heavily dented, damaged moth, with cracked skin and ugly depart marriage.