Liming the soil
Liming the soil is carried out to control their acidity.The average Russian soil band mainly characterized by high acidity, which is unfavorable for the cultivation of fruit crops.To neutralize the acidic soil with lime.Liming is performed during preplant soil preparation.Lime whole area intended to lay the garden.On average, it is recommended to make 3,5- 4,4 kg of lime per 10 m2.The calcareous material (ground limestone, dolomite flour, travertine) make the fall or spring for soil digging to a depth of 20 cm, it is possible simultaneously with organic fertilizers.
recommended doses of lime (in kg per 1 m2)
depending on the acidity of the soil
TipPokazatel soil acidity, pH
pochvy4,0 4.1-4.5 4.6-5.0 5,1-55
sandy and loamy
0,6 0,45 0,3 0,15
Medium and heavy-
0,9 0,65 0,5 0,4
Spend soil liming 1 times in 35 years, depending on the initial state of the soil and its ductility, and then again generate acidity soil analysis and, if necessary, repeat the liming.
should be borne in mind that hyd
Holiday garden plots are usually small, so before you lay the garden, you need to think about it, make a sketch site, which will later be the basis for
all the work in the garden.When a sketch drawing should take into account the position and configuration of the garden site, topography, soil conditions, existing tree and shrub plantings, natural features, such as large rocks, stumps of cut trees and vegetation, as well as personal preferences and wishes of family members to the set and the number of fruit cropsand their employment opportunities.
Define the desired range of fruit crops needed for planting the number of plants, calculated the area under their location and then proceed to the preparation of the plan.
Scheduling of planting fruit crops involves a serious responsibility, as tree crops are very durable, grow to a large size and change anything in the future will not be easy.
elaborately planned well kept garden will be a proud family and site decoration.Well-decorated garden all its parts are in a certain relation to each other and complement each other.Such perfection - the result of understanding the different parties question.
When designing a garden is important to consider the location of the site in relation to the cardinal points and the direction of the prevailing wind.
Trees, buildings, shrubs must protect the land from the prevailing winds, and not obscure it.Fruit trees are grouped in one place, berry bushes - in other vegetable and strawberry - in the third.
applied on a sketch plan stands in a certain scale, to avoid any distortion of real space.For example, 1 cm on the plane should be equal to 1 m area.The plan is required to indicate the direction of north-south and the selected zoom.To identify landing sites used conventional icons.Trees should be marked double colored circles where the inner diameter of the circle - this is the projection of the trunk of the tree, one outside - the projection of the crown.For shrubs, you can take any other notation: zadratiki, crosses, triangles or polygons.It should also indicate the contours of plants.For clarity, the image for each type of fruit trees and shrubs, you can choose your color.For example, the apple mark red pears - blue, cherry - pink, plum - purple.On
plan is necessary to put the main part of the garden: the house with a lounge, a garden, a vegetable garden, outbuildings, greenhouses, paths to provide for accommodations woody fruit crops.
In small areas can be divided into three rectangular platforms of varying lengths and widths depending on their primary purpose.Dynamically positioned rectangles and squares quite well look it in small areas.Fruit trees and bushes planted in rows at the same time on the border, leaving the center free for strawberries and garden tools.Fruit trees and berry bushes must be positioned so that they did not shade vegetables and strawberry plantation.Most large and tall trees should be placed on the north side of the site, and the skillful pruning to control their height and width of the crown.Organizing spaces with separate placement of cultures, it is necessary to take into account their need for lighting.It is necessary that the plant height increases in the direction from south to north.On the south side of the site is removed place for vegetables and strawberries, on the north - for apples, pears, and between them a sredneroslye breed - cherry, plum and berry bushes.
Placing fruit trees is necessary so that they did not shade neighboring plots.Distance from the trees to the borders must be at least 3 m. At a distance of 1 m from the boundary can be planted raspberries, currants, gooseberries, and that may bear fruit for some shade.From buildings of trees is recommended to plant at a distance of 3 meters, so that the structure does not give high shade trees during daylight hours.
Distance from fruit plants to the border area should not be less than:
slaboroslyh for fruit trees - 2 m,
for strong-trees - 3 m,
for berry bushes -1m.
There are two basic styles of the site plan: regular, or geometric and landscape, or natural.With regular planning a landing symmetrically with respect to the main axis of the composition.They kept strict geometric shapes of trees and bushes placement beds for vegetable crops and strawberries comply with the straightness of rows and garden paths, the same distance between plants of each species.Feature of the landscape style is the free placement of plants, close to what is observed in nature.Free planning of garden plants gives the area a special attraction.Landscape style provides a more extensive use of the form and features of the relief portion.
With regular planning scheme area planted with fruit trees and berry bushes can be square, rectangular, and chess.
Square convenient accommodation in areas with a length slightly greater than the width.
rectangular circuit planting is more suitable for the extended configuration areas.A variation of the rectangular circuit - Wide-bodied arrangement, different from rectangular stronger thickening plant in rows and row spacing greater.
The basis of the regular placement of plants on the site can be laid and geometric polygon, then preference should be given female, or group, crop planting.
Between the trees, if they are grown on slaboroslyh suspensions, enough to leave 2.5 to 3 m, and in the medium and strong-growing rootstock -. 4- 5 m in the row between the trees can be planted currants, gooseberries, a felt cherry.This arrangement is suitable for plants portion rectangular or square shape.For
/. cord with knots tied at regular 3.4 and 5 m .
2. After the tension cord is formed a right triangle with sides 3.4 and 5 m.
3. With cord, you can build tworight angles on opposite sides of section
plot irregular triangular shape or group accommodation suitable plants.
distance between fruit plants
Trees on slaboroslyh suspensions - 2.5-3 m in a series of 3-4 m between rows.
Trees on rootstocks sredneroslye - 3-4 m in the row of 4-4,5 meters between the rows.
trees on rootstocks with strong-volume crowns - 5 m or more in a row, 4-5 m between rows.
Palmetto on silnoroslyh suspensions - 2-3 th in a row, 3-4 m between rows.
Palmetto on slaboroslyh suspensions - 1.5-2 m in a series of 3-3.5 m between rows.Mixed occupancy is allowed of fruit trees and berry bushes in the area with increasing distance in the range of 1-2 m between rows -. Then at 1-1.5 m between the fruit trees can be planted berry bushes.
Berry bushes are planted at the following distances:
currant red and white - 1.5 m in the row with row spacing width of 2 m;
black currant - 1.5 and 2.5 m;
raspberries - 0.5 and 1.2 m
gooseberries -. 1.5 m in the row and between them.
breakdown of the regular style of the site begins with the beat straight line long series and marking the places where they will grow fruit trees and shrubs.At the station rectangular or square carried markup rows parallel to one side of the enclosures.If the site has a different shape, you must first mark a right angle, starting from the place where the first tree must grow.The layout of the angles can be done with a tape or cord, which tied knots at a distance of 3.4 m and 5 m.
After marking direct fragile extend his hand with a rope, twine or wire.Then along one side with a tape mark out the distance between trees in rows and along the other - the distance between the rows.
Most often give direction rows north-south, which ensures the best lighting conditions leaves and fruits throughout the summer.Then, in the ranks of the scheduled place in 1 cages trees and bushes at certain distances.In these places hammer pegs.Distances between fruit plants depends, as already mentioned, from the rock, variety, rootstock, soil type and the size of the garden.On small plots should
placement of fruit trees and berry bushes in the area
1. shrubs placed in one row away at the fence, fruit trees were planted in pairs
number 2, followed by a flower gardenand garden.
2. shrubs placed in 2 rows parallel along opposite sides of the area, fruit trees are planted in 2 rows in pairs.Between the rows of shrubs and fruit trees Group placed a flower bed, vegetable garden, a place to rest. 3. Fruit trees planted distance fence on one side of the plot, shrubs placed in small groups on both sides of the space allocated for a vegetable garden, flower garden and playground for recreation
2-line system is the placement of fruit plants - location trees - garden on a system of double rows, between which left space.The total thickness of the crown doubling series should be close to crown thickness single-row garden, trees in these ranks is expedient to place in a staggered manner.system Disadvantages: complicated'm leaving for the crown and the fight against pests and diseases, as well as tillage.
plant trees grafted on semi-dwarf and dwarf rootstocks.The recommended distance between them: the apple Antonovka on seedlings and rootstock A2, pears, plums and apricots - 4 m in the row between the rows with a width of 5 m;apple on a medium-tall suspensions, cherry, plum Hungarian and peach - 3 m in the row and 4 m between rows, apple on slaboroslyh or dwarf rootstock M26, M9 and pears on quince - 2 m in a row with a width between rows of 3 m.
fruit trees and berry bushes should be planted so that they did not shade each other, which causes the development of various diseases and reduces the illumination of plants themselves and their fetuses.
If you want to create trees with flattened crowns in the form of tapestries, the same age are planted along the taut wire, the first row which is located at a height of 60 cm from the ground, and the next - every 50 sm.
on a slope of more than 8-10 ° placed treesacross the slope at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other in the sod strips or bulk terraces.This placement of trees prevents soil erosion from the slope.In the ranks, placed across the slope, possibly mixed planting of trees and berry bushes.
One of the secrets of successful gardening is right choice of plants and their number for a given area.So before you start planting, you should draw up a rough list of breeds and varieties.If you choose to consider climate and weather in the area, angle and topography of the site, the groundwater level.
necessary to determine the level of groundwater.To do this, drill drill hole depth of 2-2.5 m and paste it in a metal tube.From time to time, it is better in the spring, summer and fall, putting in a wooden pipe rack, it is necessary to measure the level of standing water.If the site is not level, you need to be drilled in several places.The measurement data is applied to the site plan.
composition of plants will depend on the area of illumination.Fruit plants, especially pear, cherry, grapes, gooseberries, raspberries, require a lot of light and heat, and the grapes are still a long growing season.It is important to determine the correct
Parties to extend the right angle with the help of ropes and mark out a place along them for planting crops at certain distances
you to plot the number of fruit-bearing plants on the basis of your needs in the fruit and possible labor costs.Often, gardeners, received land, tend to quickly master them and put as much fruit and other crops is possible, using every meter.And soon transformed into areas of continuous thickets just because people are not able to take care of so many plants that require constant care.The branches planted near fruit trees intertwined, crowns the top of a high rise.In wet years in the garden due to excessive thickening dark and damp.The main skeletal branches and trunks of trees covered with moss and lichen.Stems and branches in the lower part of the crown become bare, fruit formation cease to function.Berry bushes and strawberries planted between the rows under the trees, heavily shaded, leaves and berries amazed powdery mildew and other diseases.The planting strawberries affected botrytis.Fruit trees - scab.In the garden a lot of pests.To avoid such adverse effects, it is necessary to plan the possible number of cultures in the area, based on its size.When selecting a bookmark for Garden breeds and varieties should be considered an opportunity to more fully and rapidly to the needs of the fruits and berries.It is necessary to put quickly come into fruition (early appearance of fruit) species - stone fruits and berries, and more early appearance of fruit varieties of apples and pears.At Garden tab pay special attention to the apple tree.This is the main fruit crop that grows well and gives a high yield almost everywhere.Under the conditions of the middle band on a standard garden plot can recommend the following set of fruit trees: apple trees 8, including 2 year old tree varieties, 2 - 4 and autumn - winter, 1 pear tree, cherry tree 4 and 2 plum tree.From berry crops in the garden area should grow strawberries, currants, gooseberries and raspberries.Strawberries are easy to propagate and RMS-roplodna: begins to bear fruit in the second year, and a full crop yields in the third year after planting.
strawberry yield an average of 1 kg per 1 m2.Greater attention should be black currants, berries which contain many vitamins.The average yield it is not less than 2 kg per bush.Large and regular crop yields redcurrants.Gooseberries on productivity surpasses all other berry crops: the yield from one bush is an average of 3-4 kg.Raspberry easily propagated, but the yield from her fair - an average of 0.5 kg per 1 m2 of stands.
the area under planting m2