August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

Before planting seedlings carefully examine, sick and damaged branches and roots are cut to healthy wood, can not be left broken, or worn to a frazzle split roots.The remaining roots should be retained, since the more remains in the tree roots, than they are long and full of branches, the better and faster they take root and start to grow after planting.All work with seedlings

recommended when the air temperature above O ° C.

dried up when transporting seedlings is recommended to put in a container with water for 1-2 days to all the tissues of the tree were filled with water and is easily moved the process of planting and the healing.

Before planting the root system of seedlings dipped in manure-clay mash (1 part clay, 2 - mullein, 5-6 - water).Growth regulators (auxins) contained in manure, promote the formation and growth of roots.You can make a simple soil mash: fill in the excavated hole in the ground a small (40 x 40 x 30 cm), loose soil top layer of dark soil and dilute it with water to the c

onsistency of thick cream.To stimulate the growth of the root system in the soil mash added hetero-growth regulator auxin.Liquid Damage soil solution to the root system provides good contact with the soil in the landing pit, which is very important for the plant.At the bottom of the landing pit pour a mound should be mixed with fertilizers or compost earth, Seedling put on a hillock and spread on it all the roots of the plant.Planting more convenient to perform together: one person sets the tree on the north side of the stake, carefully spreading roots on the mound, the other throws the earth: the upper shot at digging holes, a layer of soil - to the roots, since the pit edges and gently compacting it with his foot (placing the heel tothe wall of the pit, and the toe - to the seedling).This should be done carefully so as not to break the roots of the plant.Soil, which is filled roots must not contain fertilizers, it can only be mixed with the mature compost in the ratio 3: 1.To not formed between the roots of emptiness, seedling shaken.When planting it is held so that the root collar was above the pit edge for 3-5 cm.

After planting a tree on the border of the former pit poured roller to form a well, and water the plant (2-3 buckets of water on each tree regardless of soil moistureand weather).After watering the tree with the soil settles, and the root collar at ground level will remain in the garden.Seedling tied to cola soft twine or other material, the place of contact with twine trunk and branches isolated by placing pieces of rubber to prevent ingrowth into the crust.The next day after planting poured gullies and tree trunks, mulch badly decomposed littered with manure, raw immature compost or humus (layer thickness up to 10 cm

).In dry weather, the seedlings are watered every 10-15 days.

seedlings planting rules

Buy seedlings only in specialized farms.

Avoid drying the roots of seedlings for 1-2 days before planting to put the plant in a container with water.

Broken branches cut off.

Damaged roots are cut to healthy tissue.

Before planting the roots to stimulate, dipped them in the clay-mash dung or soil mash with a growth stimulator.

roots evenly in the landing pit, preventing them from wringing and twisting.

When backfilling avoid voids between the roots, compacted soil to hold fast to a tree in the ground.

not fill the root neck.

compacts the soil gently, avoiding breakage of the roots.

tie sapling to a stake by placing it on the north side, just a soft binder material by placing the insulating material at the site of contact with the trunk.

We can not allow ingrowth of strapping material into the crust, it can later cause cracks of wood.

Form watering tree trunks circle seedling abundantly watered, tree trunks zamulchirovat.

important to form tree trunks tree, which as the tree growth is proportional to the increase in diameter.To protect the roots from freezing of the first winter after planting, especially in the dwarf species with close to the soil surface root system before the onset of frost-resistant insulated tree trunks peat spruce branches or other material.

time after planting,

diameter tree trunks


circles m



and 3-4









4 & gt; 5

influence of environmental factors on the development of plants

growth and development of plants associated with the external conditionsenvironment, main of them - heat, light, water, air and nutrients.Only when all of these factors and their optimal combination of plants can grow and develop normally.Therefore it is necessary to know the role of each factor in the culture of life, to be able to manage them.


Heat affects all chemical transformations and the movement of substances in the plant and in the soil, at the beginning and duration of phenological phases and vegetation in general.For growth, development and formation of the productive fruit requires a certain temperature mode.With respect to heat fruit plants conventionally divided into:

very heat-loving (citrus, peach, walnut, apricot, persimmon and grapes);

thermophilic (cherry, pear, plum, cherry, apple);

less thermophilic (gooseberries, currants, strawberries and machine).

Lack of heat in some years, inhibits vegetative growth, impairs the process of pollination and fertilization of flowers, reduced yield and fruit quality, addictive vegetation and degrades the readiness of the plant for the winter.

fruit plants also react differently to the duration of the warm period.Prolonged reduction temperature increases vegetation period, slowing the growth of shoots and ripening and, as a rule, is deteriorating their quality.Plants need warmth to the various phases of vegetation varies.Spring coupons root growth begins when the soil temperature reaches 4-5 ° C, pears - 6-7 cherries - b ° ​​C.For the active growth of roots, a higher soil temperature - from 8 to 20 ° C.When carved raising or lowering the temperature of the soil, root growth stops.Llja growth of the aerial parts of fruit plants need a fairly high temperature.If the swelling buds of apple trees and other plants begin at 5 ° C, the melting them and shoot growth - with an air temperature above 10 ° C.For the normal flowering, pollination and fertilization of plants requires a temperature of 15-20 ° C..At low temperatures, the air got on the stigma with pollen does not germinate, and fertilization takes place.

early autumn and late spring frosts, severe cold and deep winter thaw often cause damage to certain tissues, organs and parts of the fruit trees, and sometimes even their death.

not always useful excess heat during the growing season.Fever stops the growth of root and aerial systems, accelerates the flowering process, causing fetal abnormalities and others.

temperature mode plays an important role in the period of relative calm.In the fall and early winter at 0-2 ° C the roots from the soil even absorb the nutrients in their tissues the synthesis of organic compounds, in an elevated part of continuing deposition of storage materials.The formation of fruit buds, which began in June and July, under favorable conditions, continues to fall, and the beginnings of flower buds overwinter more developed.Dangerous for fruit plants very low temperatures in winter.Most sensitive to frost root system.

roots of dwarf rootstocks of apple and strawberry are killed when the soil temperature -8-10 ° C, and the roots of wild stocks and the forest of apple seedlings Antonovka ordinary at -14 ° C

particularly affected the root system in the snowless winters and dry aftersummer and fall.

When severe frosts particularly damaged by bark and wood in the fork of a tree and at the base of trunks, as their tissues later completed the physiological processes and the preparation for the period of deep rest.Often, plants are damaged by frost in late winter and early spring (February-March).

During this period, there are sharp differences of temperatures : from -10-20 night before -5-10 ° C during the day.Daytime temperatures promote the positive beginning of vegetation, so the fabric out from the rest, lose their hardening and lose the ability to withstand the night frosts.Under such conditions, suffer bark from sunburn trunks and

flower buds, especially stone fruit (plum, cherry, sweet cherry).Very dangerous late spring frosts, coincide with the phase of mass flowering trees and shrubs.Very sensitive to low temperatures stamen, pistil and ovules.At a temperature of -1 - 1,5 ° C die stigma and ovule plums and cherries, and at -2 ° C - apple young ovaries.

a Different hardiness are parts of the fruit of the tree: the aboveground part of a more hardy than the root system;growth buds are more resistant to low temperatures than flowering.In turn, the stone flower buds of plants are more sensitive to frost than pome.

In the middle zone temperature in winter usually does not fall below a dangerous level for fruit plants, and the growing season has a favorable temperature conditions, and long enough.The possibility of growing breeds and varieties in specific areas defined by the sum of active temperatures and winter conditions that must be strictly taken into account in the development of high-quality rock-zoning.Different breeds, and even varieties of the same breed have varying degrees of hardiness.Resistance to low temperatures, which is determined by the frost and winter hardiness of plants is a major limiting factor in the cultivation of individual species and varieties in the conditions of the middle band.