Moisture and Irrigation
plant tissues at 70-80 % consist of water, in the fruit of its content is even higher.On the formation of roots, shoots, leaves, fruits and other plant organs consumed huge amounts of water.Most of it is spent on transpiration - evaporation through the leaves and external tissues of plants.Thus, moisture is probably the main condition of life of the plant.
main source of water for the plant - soil moisture, it is in it dissolve vital nutrients, forming a so-called soil solution coming to the plant.Fruit trees and shrubs
best to grow and develop at soil moisture 65-80 %. Lack of water in the summer with high temperatures leads to premature aging and leaves the whole tree, a sharp reduction in the productive period of the life of plants.For this reason, the trees bear fruit regularly, go into winter unprepared and are often damaged by frost.
excess soil moisture also has a negative impact on the plant, since the displacement of the soil of oxygen and accumulation of carbon dioxide, which leads to th
water enters into the cells of plant tissues, it is transferred nutrients from roots to leaves and vice versa.Water supports the plant tissue in a state of turgor (stress state), with its lack of leaves and young shoots wither and the plant may die.water should flow therein continuously to maintain the life of plants.Lack or excess of water disrupts the normal life of the plant.The main source of water for them is supply of soil moisture.With a lack of water in the soil fruit plants should be watered.
Fruit trees and shrubs require constantly moist, but nezamokayuschey soil, so they are not suitable for low-lying areas with constant danger of flooding.The landing site is important to consider groundwater level. It must not be above a certain fruit crops for each mark:
apple - 150 cm,
pear - 180-200 cm;
cherry - 200-210 cm;
plum - 100-120 cm;
berry bushes -. 100 cm
Best of all trees and shrubs growing at the water table no higher than 100-150 cm from the soil surface.According to the degree of resistance to excess moisture in the root layer of soil fruit plants can be placed in a descending order: currant, gooseberry, apple, pear, plum, cherries, raspberries, strawberries.Excess moisture in the air and the soil enhances the susceptibility of the leaves and fruit scab, powdery mildew, cherry leaf spot and other fungal diseases can cause death of the roots and plant death.In the middle zone with an annual rainfall of up to 700 mm natural moisturizing considered sufficient.However, each year some months, and sometimes even the whole growing season are dry, so the normal growth and productivity of fruit crops is impossible without irrigation.For moisture-loving plants grown on malovlagoemkih light sandy soils, needs constant watering.Fruit plants consume more water during the period of intensive growth of roots and shoots, bookmark flower buds, as well as during the formation of the fruit (May-July), less - during the attenuation of growth and maturation of fruits (August-September).In dry weather in the first period needs abundant watering in the future it is possible to limit, as the decrease in humidity at this time promotes maturation, improve the taste and color of fruit, aging shoots, preparing them for the winter.Harmful and excess moisture in the soil inhibited root growth, shoot growth slows down, crack fruit and berries.
watering fruit and berry crops is particularly necessary at a time when there is increased growth of shoots, fruits are formed and laid the flower buds.Care should be taken to ensure good wetting of the soil.
water the plants during the day in sunny weather is not recommended, since most of the poured water quickly evaporates.Watering is best done in the evening hours: 2-3 hours before sunset or early in the morning, because at this time of reduced evaporation of moisture from the soil.In cloudy weather, watering and let in daylight.
Watering should be abundant, achieving full getting wet soil in the root zone of fruit crops, so that the average irrigation rate is not less than 3-4 buckets per 1 m2.Water is poured directly under the crown of fruit trees and shrubs.With a lack of water for irrigation during the dry season it is recommended more often loosen the soil between the rows.Loosening prevents the formation of soil crust, destroy the capillaries through which moisture enters from the lower to the upper layers, which significantly reduces its evaporation from the soil.
In the first years after planting trees watered 3-4 times during the spring and early summer, and in dry years - 5-8 times.Over watering 1 of 1 tree planted spend 2-3 buckets of water, for 7-10-year-old tree - 10-15 buckets.
/. Watering the ring groove made along the periphery of the crown, that is, the contour of its projection on the ground.
2. Watering two annular furrow, which first laid on the periphery of the crown, and the second at a distance of 30-40 cm from the trunk of the tree.
3. Watering in the wells, proceed in a circle around the periphery of the crown, diameter of 20-30 cm hole
watering fruit trees
Fuel type fruit trees well with application of liquid fertilizers and fertilizing.For better penetration of moisture to the roots with dissolved nutrients can be used and furrow irrigation methods well format.
Zo time watering the soil in the tree trunks of a large fruit tree should be impregnated to the depth of its entire root zone.Rule abundant watering is especially important to keep on malovlagoemkih light soils that do not have a high capacity to retain moisture, watering child carried out by means of the hose over the entire periphery of the crown, so that the water reached the end active roots
depth of the root zone and the active absorption of water from the fruitplant
8 young non-bearing orchards of pome rocks (apple, pear) to strong-suspensions in pome fruit-bearing orchards on dwarf and semi-dwarf rootstocks in fruit-bearing stone - 50-70 cm in black currant -. 40 cm in young plants and to70 We have fruiting gooseberry - up to 25 cm in young and up to 60 at fruiting.
In adults, raspberry bush - up to 30-50 cm At strawberries -.. Up to 20-25 cm water when watering should wet the soil at this depth.
berry bushes and fruit trees on rootstocks with a low-power slaboroslyh root system must be watered in the first place, and more often than plants with deep-seated root system, which are able to draw water from deeper soil layers.Adult trees usually require less frequent watering.After watering the soil around-trunk circle must be zamulchirovat.Watering is advisable to stop for 15-30 days before the harvest of autumn and winter varieties.Last pozdneosenny watering, which produce in October during leaf fall, is of great significance to improve the hardiness of the tree, stimulates root growth, prevents desiccation of shoots.Estimated rate pozdneosennih irrigation - 5-6 buckets per 1 m 2 in a dry autumn.
air needed fruit plants as a source of oxygen for breathing and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.The air trapped in the soil, contributes to vital activity of the root system and the whole plant.
Atmospheric air consists mainly of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.Air - the main source of carbon dioxide necessary for photosynthesis and oxygen necessary for respiration of all plants, especially root system.To ensure the normal life of the plants need constant replenishment of carbon dioxide air.But if on the air, we can not influence, to enrich the soil air carbon dioxide we are able.Adding manure and other organic fertilizers in the soil surface layer allows you to enrich the air with carbon dioxide.Experimentally it has been found that increased the percentage of carbon dioxide in the presence of air beneficially affect the yield of plants.
oxygen content in the soil air is much less, and the carbon dioxide is several times greater than in the atmosphere.On the supply of plant roots of oxygen significantly affects soil aeration.To improve it, you must often loosen the soil in the tree trunks, and keep it clean from weeds.Before planting the orchard to improve soil aeration is carried out its deep loosening, make organic fertilizer, and in the course of performance of the planted soil treatment should be aimed at improving its structure and porosity.
His aerial parts, roots, fruits and seeds of fruit plants are built of organic substances (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, acids, etc.), Produced by the leaves.For the synthesis of organic substances required plants carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, sulfur and other elements.The carbon part and hydrogen plants absorb oxygen from the air.
mineral nutrients they take almost exclusively from the soil in the form of dissolved compounds.Among the elements
power coming out of the soil, isolated trace elements are used in significant quantities by plants (from fractions to several percents by dry weight), and trace elements required in small quantities.All these elements play a role in physiological processes, they are vital to plants and irreplaceable.Nutrients and water plants absorb from the soil the roots, mainly from the so-called water or soil solution.Plants have the selective ability to absorb the nutrients, which are currently most needed.Release of nutrients in plants depends not only on their availability in the soil, but also on many properties of the soil, air and other factors.The most important factor is the soil water, at which a lack of absorption in the soil even available nutrients therein is significantly reduced.
Nitrogen is part of the protein compounds that are the basis of all life, and chlorophyll (with the help of plants that use solar energy, absorb carbon dioxide to form carbohydrates).A sufficient supply of fruit plants with nitrogen promotes the growth of vegetative organs, laying flower buds and fruit set.The positive influence of nitrogen on the growth of plants also affects strong build-up of the leaf surface.All this leads to the accumulation of large amounts of carbohydrate, increases root growth and improving mineral nutrition of plants.Secured nitrogen plants have large dark green leaves form a strong gain and give high yields.
When excess nitrogen nutrition Fruit plants develop wildly, but poorly laid flower buds, trees later come into fruiting, vegetation period is prolonged, resulting in reduced winter hardiness.Fruits contain less sugar, poorly painted, deteriorate during storage.excess nitrogen in the soil in the fall, and the shortage in the soil phosphorus and potassium is especially harmful influences.With a lack of nitrogen leaves little synthesize organic compounds, and early fall.It appears first on the lower leaves and then spreads up the run.When nitrogen starvation normal green or dark green color changes to a pale or yellowish-green (chlorotic).
in soil usually are significant reserves of nitrogen sy I, but it is part of the organic compounds and is not available to plants.The transformation of the plants reach organic compounds in available mineral occurs under the influence of bacteria vital activity which contributes to good aeration of the soil.The strongest available nitrogen accumulation occurs when the content of the soil in the loose and clean of weeds.
Phosphorus is also an essential element of food.It is part of the complex proteinaceous compounds as well as mineral salts of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium plays an important role in respiration and synthesis of carbohydrates, their accumulation in storage organs of plants, accelerates a number of physiological processes.Adding phosphorus fertilizers contributes to early entry in the fruiting plants, enhances bookmark of flower buds and increases the yield of fruit crops.With a lack of phosphorus, the whole plant is weakened, reduced laying flower buds leaves in early summer, a normal or darker in color with purple bronze pigmentation small veins They are located at an acute angle to escape.The shoots are short and thin.With strong phosphate starvation on the leaves are formed yellow-green and dark green areas, leaf fall occurs in the lower part of the shoot, and the top left socket.Fruit of greenish color, loose, poor quality.
main part of phosphorus in the soil part of the insoluble mineral and organic compounds.Mobilization of phosphorus occurs when liming, since calcium phosphates are formed, the more soluble and available to plants.
Potassium plays an important role in the accumulation and movement of carbohydrates in plants.When potassium deficiency in plants accumulate soluble forms of nitrogen -. Ammonia, amide, etc. Potassium contributes to the transformation of these forms of nitrogen in proteins and reduces the negative impact of excess soluble nitrogen compounds in the plant.It is important to accelerate the development of plants and their maturity, "od potassium influence enhanced resistance to cold and drought tolerance of plants. The symptoms of potassium deficiency is usually The appearance-yayutsya in shoot growth period. The leaves become yellowish-green color. In this pe-giod potassium deficiency can beconfused, the nitrogen starvation. Height veins behind the growth plate areas between the veins, as a result of which ~ are curved sheet plate. When
further development of starvation along the edges of the sheet appears purple band, and then the sheet edge dies, forms characteristic of a lack of potassium burnleaves. with a lack of potassium necrotic and burnt leaves remain on the branches until not dry up. leaf fall begins with a shoot apex. potassium deficiency leads to underdevelopment and the slow maturation of the fruit, reduces frost plants. The amount of potassium in the soil in a very strong dependent on itcultivation. The most assimilable potassium poor soils of light texture.Potassium and nitrogen readily leached from the soil, and the phosphorus becomes sparingly soluble form.Therefore it is necessary the systematic application of fertilizers containing these elements.
Calcium gives strength tissues of fruit plants.Especially it is necessary stone fruits.With a lack of calcium in them and there are plenty of GUMMOSIS appearance of brown spots on the leaves.Magnesium
part of the chlorophyll and the soil is absorbed by plants in almost the same amounts as phosphorus.With a lack of magnesium decreases the chlorophyll in the leaves develop chlorosis spotted.Signs of starvation appear first on the lower leaves.At the beginning of fasting dark green leaves, and then they become light or grayish-green.Subsequently, the coloring becomes yellow-brown, and after - in dark brown.The spots on the leaves merge with each other, in a day or two leaves shrivel and fall off.Leaf fall begins with the base of the shoots in June and July.Trees suffering from a lack of magnesium, give a very weak vegetative growth.Magnesium is introduced into the soil with lime or dolomite flour in the form of special fertilizers.
Iron is necessary in the first place for the formation of chlorophyll.A characteristic feature is the lack of iron chlorosis of leaves on the tips of shoots.With a weak failure to yellowish-green background green leaf stands out mesh veins, with strong starvation leaves become straw-yellow with a small amount of green veins, prolonged starvation can occur death of shoot tips.For iron deficiency are more sensitive pear, apple, plum, raspberry, less - gooseberries and currants.Symptoms of iron deficiency found in soils with poor aeration, which is caused by lack of oxygen in the soil and
disruption of the normal power supply of the roots.The most widely circulated lime chlorosis caused by excessive soil liming.