August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

In the non-chernozem zone of Russia dominated the soil types in need of constant improvement of fertility by making a variety of organic and mineral fertilizers.This organic fertilizer (manure, someone posts torfonavozny compost) is particularly valuable for apples and pears, but peat and feces in its pure form is better to use not directly, but for making good compost.fruit tree fertilizer system is built taking into account not only the rock-varietal characteristics, but also the age of the trees, rootstock, properties and soil fertility, productivity of plantations, as well as the content of the soil system in the garden.Good preplant soil dressing fertilizer, as a rule, provides normal mineral nutrition of trees and their growth in the first 2-3 years after planting.If at this time increment of shoots significantly weakened, in the spring the soil is made nitrogen fertilizers.The gardens, which was not made preplant incorporation into the soil phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, are making their

detection of weakening growth and the establishment of signs of deficiency of phosphorus and potassium by chemical analysis of soil and leaf diagnostics .

Sheet diagnostics

Soil and sheet plant diagnostics is based on the fact that there is a close link between productivity and the amount of nutrients contained in the soil and the leaves of fruit.The amount of nutrients that need to be made with organic and mineral fertilizers to the trees gave a high yield of good quality, it depends on the nutrient reserves in the soil and the nutrient elements in the leaves of trees.Therefore, to calculate the dose of fertilizer use developed by research institutions on the basis of the experience of an average approximate dose of fertilizer.For example, when an excess of nitrogen content in the leaves of nitrogen fertilizers are not made.At the optimum nitrogen content in the leaves is brought average dose equal to 9 g of active ingredient per 1 m2 in low - queen.The recommended dose of fertilizers per 1 m2: garden at an early 9, the nitrogen, phosphorus was used, 9 tons of potassium in the active substance, and b kg of manure;in fertile garden respectively 9,6, '12 and 6 kg of manure

main way making fertilizer in the garden is their introduction of digging in tree trunks, which houses the bulk of the root system.Up to 4 years of life I Examples barrel circle in 2 times more than the crown, but not

Under favorable conditions, the trees accumulate power reserve nutrients in the roots, trunk, branches, which can be used in periods of growth and fruiting.When fertilizer is necessary to take into account the laws of the location of the root system.At the sod-podzolic soils in the young tree roots high density observed under the crown, that is, the majority of fouling roots is close to the trunk.The bulk of the roots lies in the layer of soil to a depth of 60 cm.

less than 1.5 m, in the 4-6 years of age he is 1,5 times more.The older the tree, the greater the tree trunks and the higher the dose of fertilizer.Autumn tree trunks dug from the application of organic, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.The treatment is carried out to a depth of 22 cm at the periphery of the crown and approximately 8.10 cm barrel.For to enable cor- (continued after the table)

of organic fertilizers for fruit trees

tree trunks,


or torfofekalny

diameter and

compost (kg per tree)









4 :.




doses of fertilizers for non-bearing trees (1 g per tree)

Culture ADIF

superphosphate, 18 % P205

Potash salt, 40% K2O

... ::: ..:::: & gt ;: a & gt; :: ::;. :::: ...

In the 1st and 2nd year

apples, pears, cherries, cherry 200-300

plum, peach, apricot 300-500

On the 3rd and 4th year

Apple 200-500



Pear 200-500



Oshva 300-600



Cherry 400-800



Cherry 300-600



peach, apricot 300-600



doses of mineral fertilizers for fruit trees (1 g per tree)



...... ..: ...:

......;: ...:: ...:


& gt;: & gt ;: ::: -


Potash salt,


Nitrogen, 28,5%

18 % P2 ° 5



first years of fruiting

(4-8 years)

















peach, plum


900-1800 Followyears plodon

400-900 Ocean














peach, plum





doses of fertilizers under the berry crops (g per 1 sq.m.)



Nitrogen, 20,5%


Phosphorus, 18 %

Potassium; 40%

Raspberries, blackberries



Currants and gooseberries





before laying the plantation



s 1 st year of fruiting


s subsequent years after collecting



yum master fertilized soil layer, in the following years the area was treated to a depth of 8-10 cm. in 2-3 years fertilizers are applied a second time, and the soil at the periphery of the crown is treated to a depth of 20-22 cm. Good results are obtained in the application of fertilizersgroove.In this method, the two sides of the tree approximately 50 cm digging a groove depth of 40-50 cm and a width and make them organic phosphorus and potash.At 1 cubic grooves can be given about 4-8 buckets of compost or peat buckets 10-20 or 6-10 buckets of compost.Furthermore, to make 1 kg of superphosphate and 200 g of potassium salt.The following year, fertilizers are applied in the groove with the other two sides of the tree.You can apply fertilizer at 1 year in an annular groove on the periphery of the crown.Every 4-5 years fertilization was repeated, with the grooves due to the growth of the crown have farther from the tree near the middle rows.On light sandy soils in the grooves it is very useful to do layer of a mixture of clay and peat or compost earth, as they trap moisture and nutrients in the soil.Distributed focal fertilizing method - the wells to be dig circle around-trunk on the area to a depth of 25-30 cm away from the trunk, not to damage the roots.The hole made by a mixture of organic, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.

Flowing Nitrogen fertilizers in the soil.Therefore, their incorporation into the soil in the fall is not practical, since they can be washed away by melt water.These fertilizers are used during the first spring tillage in the garden.On light-textured soils, nitrogen fertilizers are applied in 2 divided doses, as there may leaching of moisture precipitation from the root zone.In the fruit-bearing orchards with high yield 2/3 of nitrogen fertilizer can be made in early spring, and 1/3 dose - June before falling away ovaries.

When making fertilizers for fruit crops need to take care of the fight against weeds.Destroying it is achieved by treating the soil on the tree trunks, which also helps to improve the air regime of the soil, the accumulation of moisture and nutrients.Digging tree trunks best done garden fork.When digging shovel put her in radius around-trunk circle to less damaged roots.Time processing tree trunks - September-October.

In years with unfavorable conditions for the development of fruit trees (freezing of weak vegetation) in addition to the basic application of fertilizers conducted root fertilizing.organic (liquid manure, bird droppings - 0.6-1 kg per 10 m2 slurry is diluted with water 1: 6 or 1: 10) are used for the root fertilizing and minerals (urea, nitrophoska - 3-4 g per 10 m2) fertilizer.

Compost should always pour a berry crops, nepereprevshim littered organic material is recommended to mulch the soil under the bushes and the space between the rows.

well rotted manure directly contribute in proportion 3-4 buckets per 1 m2 of raspberries, currants, gooseberries and strawberries before the laying of the garden and planting crops, manure in a specified amount is repeated every 2-3 years.

Throughout the growing season plants need different nutrients and to different degrees.During flowering and fruit plants need for nutrients increases dramatically.In spring and summer, the plants should be provided with all the necessary elements, especially nitrogen, due to the need to increase the activity of flowering, fruit set, shoot growth, yield formation and fruit buds in the summer-autumn period passes second root growth wave ongoing development of fruit budsand accumulation of nutrients.Nutrients accumulated in summer and autumn, not only affect the quality of the fruit harvest this year, but also on winter hardiness and productivity of the next year.In the summer-autumn period is necessary to ensure the full phosphorus and potassium with a decrease in the power plant security nitrogen.

Preparing fruit crops to winter

to ensure normal growth, development and fruiting plants garden plays an important role good preparation fruit plants for overwintering.After leaf fall in the case of dry autumn and high-yield trees spend winter watering.Especially important is this watering in soils of light texture.Under all cultures make organic fertilizer or compost and mineral fertilizers (phosphorus and potassium), and then dug up the soil.Autumn garden digging differs from the spring so that the soil layers do not break and do not loosen as grubokomkovaya soil retains more moisture in pozdneosenny and rannevesen-tion period.In adult trees (apple and pear) 1 every 2-3 years with special scrapers or brushes metal brushes on trunks and branches of the forks of old dead skin layers of the cortex, which are then collected and burned.This makes it possible to destroy the eggs of various pests and reduce the number of pathogens.All cracks, hollows, places sunburn and frost-crack trimmed to healthy tissue, disinfect the 5% solution of ferrous sulfate or 3% solution nitrofen.Hollow after stripping and disinfection before sealing cement with sand (in a ratio of 1: 3).

In late winter, usually in March, the trees appear sunburn, frost-crack in the trunk, bole and main branches at the root collar.Their appearance is mainly due to the withering away of the bark and wood due to sudden fluctuations in temperature in the crust in the daytime and at night, reaching several tens of degrees.The most reliable way to deal with burns is whitewashing the trees with lime mortar in early November, before freezing of the soil, or in January and February.The surface of the trunk, painted in white color reflects the direct rays of the sun, preventing the heating of the cortex, and disappears the possibility of sunburn.Lime cover trunks and foundation of skeletal branches.Recipe for a simple lime wash: 2.3 kg svezhegashenoy lime, 7-8 liters of water, 300-500 g of casein glue, and 100 g pre-heated wood glue and 100 g mealy paste with the addition of 2% sodium chloride solution.Quenched

sensitive to the effects of frost bush fruit crops connect, pulling the threads to the center, tied spruce branches, and the top are covered with burlap, canvas or other thick material and covering material is fixed.You can also use the reed itsnovki

young seedlings in the first year of hibernation, and are sensitive to frost fruit trees in winter you need to insulate.To do this, wrap the trunks of the trees should be thick cloth, tie with straw or spruce branches

lime is diluted in water and mixed with hot glue, paste and salt solution, stirred thoroughly, ensuring uniform consistency.

for the protective coating of trunks and skeletal branches of trees is also used BC-54 special paint and WD-QP-577.

In winter, great harm to young and fruit-bearing fruit trees cause rodents, hares and water rats, which devour their bark and bases of skeletal branches.To protect trees from rodents and frost-crack their trunks tied (in November), tar paper, roofing material, straw, twigs, white thick paper, or metal mesh, compacted periodically and trample down the snow in tree trunks circles.