The collection and storage of fruits
on crop quality, portability and duration of storage of fruits and berries has a significant impact during removal.
Depending on the purpose and use of the fruits distinguish removable, technical and consumer maturity.
Harvest maturity is characterized by the completion of major growth and the processes of accumulation of nutrients in fruits and berries, which by this time reached the size and shape specific to the variety.Harvested in the degree of maturity, they ripen during storage and acquiring characteristic varieties of color, taste and aroma.At the stage of a removable maturity in the fruits and berries completes the process of growth and accumulation of reserve substances:. Sugars, starches, pectins, etc. As a result of the formation of cork layer between the stem and twig fruits are easily separated from her and showered.In this phase ends in fruit ripening seeds. Technical maturity is reached by 2-4 days later rented.Fruits are taken at this time, are suitable for the technical pro
On stage consumer, or edible maturity fruit as a result of biochemical transformations of reserve substances become inherent class size, appearance, texture and color of the flesh, taste, juiciness, flavor and are suitable for fresh consumption.In summer and early autumn varieties of pome fruits, stone fruit and berry plants detachable and consumer maturity of fruits and berries are almost identical for the term.
Harvest maturity of fruits of summer and autumn varieties of pome and stone fruit, and!berry crops is determined by the achievement I of consumer maturity.In the summer varieties of apples and pears is detachable and consumer ripeness of the fruit are the same.Apples summer varieties, intended for the transport should be collected 5-7 days before, and for the implementation on the ground - in the period of maturity of the consumer.Fruits of autumn varieties removed from the tree, ready-to-eat fresh.Keeping quality of 1-2 months.In pozdneosennih and winter varieties of pome fruits removable maturity far ahead of the consumer.To reach the consumer maturity of the fruit varieties pozdneosennih necessary during storage after harvest 10 to 20 days.The fruits of winter varieties Mill vyatsya unfit for consumption several months after harvest.For the fruit of autumn and winter varieties of pome of removable maturity accept such features as changes in seed color to light brown discoloration the skin of the fetus: the appearance of a yellowish-white color (from Antonovka), easy separation of the stem from the twigs and subsidence of the individual healthy, undamaged fruiton a windless day.
Keep in mind that these symptoms vary depending on the variety, weather conditions and the level of agricultural technology.Thus, fruit varieties Borovinka, Grushovka Moscow are beginning to crumble, almost reaching the optimum removable maturity, and fruit varieties Cinnamon striped relatively firmly held on the tree.
untimely collection fruits reduces their value.Premature removal of the fruit have a coarse pulp, sour taste, they contain little juice, badly painted and worse is stored, because their skin is a protective layer does not easily evaporate moisture, the fruits shrivel and lose volume.
belated collection fruit leads to the fact that the fruits are overripe dark grainy nesochnuyu pulp and poorly stored.
Peel the fruit, reaching normal removable maturity, coated with special substances (oils, resins, wax coating).Fruits with the skin to provide a good protection against adverse environmental conditions and can be stored for a long time.
Winter apples removed after the fall, but they are often removed at the same time because of the short harvesting period.You should know that early shot fruits have mediocre taste qualities and are stored badly, when renting later deteriorated as the keeping quality of fruits and conditions of preparation for the winter trees.At the beginning of October during the harvest can be light frosts.To keep the fruit waiting
Apples and pears are harvested when the stem separates easily from the branch.For better keeping quality of fruits should be left stalk.Fruit carefully take in your hand, press the index finger on the end of the stem and lift up.Do not pull the fruit of the
their complete thawing.Fruits tolerate a decrease in temperature to -5 ° C and are well preserved on the tree.
should not rush with the removal of fruits Late autumn and especially winter varieties.Keep in mind that every extra day in the fruit on the tree increases their size, improve the quality and lengthen shelf life.However, one can not be delayed.
Start cleaning with a selection of fruit drop to the ground.In dry and hot summer fruits begin to crumble before in damp and cool.The fruits of pome rocks removed tiered, since the peripheral part of the crown.For a minimum of damage is removed sequentially by levels: first fruit from the lower branches, then proceed to the middle part of the crown, and finally end up collecting from the upper branches.Read the fruits after they dry off from the morning dew (wet fruit quickly warmed and port).When removing the fruit gently take in hand, tapping his index finger on the end of the stem and lifting up.Do not pull the fruit itself (thus easily damaged stem and peel).We can not allow them to fall even with a small height.Previous fruit carefully so they do not beat each other, are placed in a container and allowed to cool in a cool place (you can not keep them in the sun), then placed in the storage space with the temperature recommended for each class.For long-term storage of selected healthy fruit with stalk, sorted by size (small and medium-sized fruits are stored rather large).
storage of apples and pears
Discontinued fruits are sorted by size and grades, then each fruit carefully, without pushing on it with your fingers, wrapped in wax paper, applying the corners of the paper on top of each other so that the latter was the top
fruits of autumn and winter varieties, designed for long term storage, remove particularly gently, trying to protect them from mechanical damage.
Fruits stone fruits (cherries, cherries, plums) must be removed after they acquire their inherent color and flavor, but still solid.When cleaning try to keep the stalk without damaging the fruit skin, covered with a protective layer, and does not erase the wax coating to peel fruit that promotes better storage.Gathering the fruits of the summer varieties of pome, stone ;: berries usually performed at 4 to 5 days before their optimum consumer maturity.
These fruits and berries are consumed mainly in fresh form, so they are kept very short time or go for recycling.Gooseberry and currant berries, tend to collect in one portion.That they did not hesitated, trying to gather gooseberries with stalk and currants - with a brush, gently separating those from other branches.As such, they are more resistant to transportation.
Berries chokeberry for fresh consumption is cut whole brushes shears.To process them more convenient to collect without stalks stacked in boxes or baskets, they are stored up to 2 months at a temperature not higher than 10 ° C.
Berries Viburnum also conveniently cut shears, without breaking brush.As such, they can be stored all winter just in a basket in the cold.If freezing, they do not lose their valuable qualities.From
grown in the middle lane only pozdneosennie fruit varieties of apples and pears and winter varieties of apples can be stored for a long time fresh.The fruit stone fruit (cherry, plum) and berries (strawberries, raspberries, currants and gooseberries) can not withstand long-term storage in a fresh kind, so they are processed - canned.
on keeping quality of fruits noticeable influence care of the soil in the garden during fruit growth, as well as weather conditions at this time.The drought in early summer, and the temperature increase during the ripening of apples and pears lead to a decrease in their keeping quality, and rapid loss of taste qualities.sod soil in the garden helps to improve the nutritional qualities of fruits and increase shelf life.Under the influence of excessive irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer in storage fruits quickly rot and become ill.
many undesirable, rapidly occurring changes in the fruits, such as shrinkage, wrinkling, wilting, loosening of the tissues, reducing the nutritional value, can be avoided by strictly observing the storage conditions.At the same time great attention must be paid to temperature, humidity and the composition of the repository.When storing winter varieties of apples it is recommended to maintain the temperature in the room 1 - 2 ° C.However, the optimum temperature for the storage of these varieties - 1 -0 ° C.For better storage of apples optimum humidity in the room must be maintained at 86-90 % level. This fruit does not wither, and the activity of microorganisms is significantly lower than the humidity of 100 %.
Fruits preserved better if immediately after the removal of the tree they are placed in storage with low temperature (about 0 ° C).More maturation of the fruit can be stored in bulk in boxes less maturation, predisposed to a more rapid tan, rot, keep packed, wrapped in paper.
The room temperature should not be for the storage of fruits below 0 ° C or more than 2 to 3 ° C, humidity - 95-97 %.In
very dry conditions the fruit is wrapped with paper or shift chips (paper) in boxes and baskets.You can significantly increase the shelf life, zapaivaya fruit in plastic bags for 1 - 1.5 kg (film thickness of 0.05 mm, with a thin film, they are stored worse).During storage the fruit periodically inspect (1.5-2 weeks), picking rotten.
Pests and diseases of fruit and berry crops