The selection and placement of cultures

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Vegetable Plants

selection of vegetable crops for growing in the garden depends on the soil and climatic conditions, location of the site and other environmental factors, as well as on your personal tastes and preferences.So, in the southern regions grow heat-loving plants - tomatoes, eggplant, pepper, watermelon, melon, beans, corn, and of cold-resistant - onions, carrots, beets.

In the central strip preference is given to the cabbage, carrots, beets, parsley, celery, and from thermophilic - tomatoes and cucumbers.In all areas of a significant place in the gardens occupy leafy crops - lettuce, radishes, dill.

placing culture at the site, consider the features of its relief.South side (slope) give heat-loving crops (beans, tomato, cucumber), north - cold-resistant (turnips, rutabaga, radish), reduced space - cabbage.

on high fertile and well heated by the sun areas, protected from cold winds, it is preferable to place heat-loving crops - cucumber, tomato, green beans, corn, melons.Cabbage medium and late varieties, ta

ble root crops can be planted on the lower parts of the site.These crops are well succeed in the lowland peatlands drained and loamy soils.Early cabbage, turnip good growing on sandy, loam, well drained soils, with an average sunlight.Under the radishes, lettuce, spinach special areas usually not withdrawn, and their grown between rows of the main crops.Perennial vegetable plants - sorrel, rhubarb, horseradish, asparagus - are better placed on a separate, dedicated areas for them.When determining the range of crops in the garden it is also important to know how much should be submitted to each particular culture, to satisfy your needs in vegetable production.Selection of crops is largely dependent on the size of the area, its remoteness from the main place of residence, as well as your ability to his treatment.In any case, every gardener wants to have a variety of vegetables from their beds, and to receive them from early spring until late autumn, and in addition, provide a winter harvesting.But to get involved in a lot of cultures did not immediately follow.It is necessary to correctly calculate the forces.Experience shows that 50 m2 reserved for vegetables, it is advisable to distribute as follows: under the root vegetables (carrots, beets, turnips, radishes, parsnips, parsley, etc.), Cabbage, cucurbits (cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin, squash) - 10m2;tomato and herbs - to 5 m2;perennial crops - 4 m2;onions and beans - 3 m2.

beds with the use of sealing intercropping

1. salad.

2. onion sets.

3. Tomato

9632;

garden plan

1. curly beans, peas, broad beans are planted to the edge of the site, so they did not shade other crops.2. Holmikovaya bed.3 - High ridge.

4. beds with early spring crops under cover material. 5. bed of root vegetables such as carrots, can be combined with planting onions.6. Tall vegetables on a trellis or frame can be replaced by planting raspberries.Such plantations provide high protection from the wind gentle greens.

7 - bed of greens.8. beds with onions can be planted various types of crops in the form of a mixed planting.9. Greenhouse.10. Spiral bed with herbs.11. Round bed with pryanoaromaticheskimi plants and herbs.12. The bed of seedlings film tunnel.13. The bed of strawberries mulched with straw.14. Ground greenhouse.15. Place for laying compost.16. hozblok

Radishes, lettuce, dill can be sown as the seals, between rows of cabbage, carrot;pumpkin, zucchini, squash advisable to plant at the end of the ridge, along the tracks, or select a special section for them.Radishes, turnips, beets, salad mustard should be placed on the sides of the ridges;peas, beans, beans - sow the border on the north side, so as not to obscure the portion of the first early spring vegetables are sown before winter, will come on the table in mid-May (perennial species of green onions, parsley, parsnips);the end of May - radishes, lettuce;from mid-June - May radish, turnips, rhubarb;in early July - beam carrot, beet, cucumber, early cabbage and cauliflower, kohlrabi;the end of July - soup beans, zucchini, squash, tomatoes and other vegetables.

possible distribution of crops in the area.When determining

range cultures and their number should be considered in the area of ​​its size, the need for culture based on one person and approximate rates crop yield per unit area.

KulturaUrozhaynost, area under kg / m culture for 1 pers., M2

Kartofel430

Cabbage

belokochannaya5b

Beet stolovaya32

Morkov42

Ogurets33-4

Pomidor44-5

Bow Bow repchatyy33

zelenyy32

Kabachok32

Cabbage tsvetnaya23

Redis1,52

salad, shpinat1,52

Zelen31

Goroh1,53

Pepper sladkiy1,52-3

Mixed planting

If a rational approach to the placement of cultures in the area,even in conditions Nechernozemie 8-9 can be prepared by various vegetables kg 1 m2.The most advisable to practice mixed and compacted planting.In this culture are selected based on their individual characteristics and mutual influence on each other.

This area is still poorly understood, but the lessons learned and a number of studies already allow to draw definite conclusions.

plants growing in close proximity, are able in various ways to influence each other.This influence can have a physical form, and expressed in the formation of a specific microclimate where higher plants create partial shading and high humidity for the plants of the lower tier, which could adversely affect the development of plants and inhibit their growth, but may instead serve as protection from the sun andwind.The need for such protection, such as spinach and lettuce that do not like the strong overheating in the sun, or fragile plants beans, are easily damaged by wind.

Another form of mutual influence of the plants can be regarded as the chemical, as in this case, exposure is carried out through the allocation of different substances roots and leaves.Leaves release volatile substances, such as strong-smelling herbs or water-soluble compounds which when irrigation or rain washed from the leaves of plants and into the soil.Roots secrete large amounts of soil organic compounds, many of them active.They are absorbed by the roots of adjacent plants, and have a certain influence on them: a stimulating or overwhelming, depending on the biological characteristics of neighboring plants.

The mutual relations between plants play a special role vegetables legume family.Special nodule bacteria on the roots of these plants are able to absorb from the air and fix nitrogen, accumulating it in special nodules.Legumes not so much nitrogen supply themselves and do not need additional nitrogen fertilizer, but they are divided from adjacent plants, which absorb nitrogen from entering the soil into the root secretions leguminous plant roots accessible form.

mechanism of this interference is based on the fact that any type of plant has a special, peculiar only to this type of metabolism.Substances produced by this type of soil and the environment, can have a powerful positive or negative effect on neighboring plants of another species.The negative impact is to slow down, and sometimes suppression of growth of neighboring plants, weakening of its development, the deterioration of the taste quality of the fruit.The positive impact is reflected in promoting the development of a plant of another, creating a favorable environment for the growth, activation of plant absorption of nutrients from the soil, increase resistance to disease and pests.

Parsley - very favorable companion for many cultures with which it is recommended to plant at the edges of the beds as a frame: tomatoes, strawberries, asparagus, celery, radishes, salads of various kinds, peas, leeks.

particular note is the protective effect of the plant on top of each other.In this case, the selection of roots or leaves of the plant species do not have a direct stimulatory or inhibitory effect on the neighbors, but to protect them from the spread of pathogenic infections, repel harmful insects for their strong, unpleasant for them to smell or knock pests confused, masking a strong aroma scent is attackedculture.This is a very important criterion in the selection of components for mixed plantings Thus, onion affects spider mites, celery - cabbage on a fly, garlic and tarragon - on cruciferous flea beetles, tomatoes - on the sucker and moth.

Aromatic herb whose leaves emit a large amount of the active volatile substances - good companions for many vegetables.

It should be borne in mind that the result of the protective action of the plants in mixed plantings will never be the complete disappearance of pests, can only be expected to reduce their number.Because this area of ​​the plants studied the relationship is not enough, you need to rely on the data of experience and record practical observations.As a result of many years of observation it found that the radish grows very well in mixed plantings between the rows of bush beans.It becomes very large, tasty and not worm-eaten, no infestation of the cabbage fly, which brings great harm in a monoculture.Sow radishes 2 weeks earlier than the beans, so she did not have time to grow strongly and drown him.Among the garden plants much more mutual relationship than the relationship of enmity.Poor compatibility of plants most often explained by their root or leaf discharge substances and compounds, poorly tolerated kinds of other plants, which can inhibit the growth of its neighbors.Allocation of some plants have a specific inhibitory effect only on any one or two other species.It is noted that all of the family celery vegetables - carrots, parsnip, parsley, celery - combine well with the family of onion - onion (species) and garlic.White and black radish well affect other vegetables.

Culture is not just side by side on the bed, but also help each other to survive, promote mutual growth and development.In some cases, the plants growing in close proximity to each other and promote a mutual beneficial effect through the roots by exchange of various substances in the composition of the root exudates.Favorable interaction may occur through the foliage secreted substances.Classic examples of assistants plants may be, for example:

carrots and bow - carrots repel onion fly, onion protects carrots from carrot fly,

leeks and celery encourage mutual growth, create a specialthe atmosphere in the garden, conducive to both cultures,

corn and beans - beans improves the soil, enriching it with nitrogen, corn poses to the fragile bean protection against wind and moderately absorbs the nutrients from the soil,

dill and cabbage - dill its strong spicy flavor masks the smell of cabbage and deters pests,

and carrots and peas - peas improves the condition of the soil, carrots repel pests,

beans and radishes, beans and cabbage help eachother mutually stimulate growth, beans improves the condition of the soil and the quality of fruit grown near crops,

spinach and tomatoes, spinach and radish - roots spinach beneficial effect on soil, root exudates contain saponin, which promotes the absorption of nutrientsgrowing near crops, improves the quality of fruits,

salad and radish - salad deters crucifer flea, makes the taste of root crops softer and softer,

peas and mustard greens - root exudates mustard stimulate growthpeas,

9632;: 9632; 9632; potatoes and horseradish - horseradish deterred from potato potato bug and Meloidae.

Compatibility crops in a mixed cropping

Culture

Possible combinations

beneficial effects

Undesirable neighborhood

Potatoes

Spray beans, spinel

Horseradish protects against potato

Sunflower, beet,

nut, cabbage, cauliflower,

bug;legumes enrich the soil

tomatoes

kohlrabi, lettuce, corn,

nitrogen deter Colorado

radish, horseradish,coriander, catnip

beetle

Cabbage

potatoes, bush beans,

Celery protects against earth

tomatoes, parsley,

(species)

celery, dill, cucumber

beetles;dill repels aphids and

garlic growing pobli-

herb salad (species), spinach,

caterpillars, improves the taste;cucumber

imity grapes, tansy

chicory, aromatic

grass deters snails;salad

herbs: hyssop, rosemary, mint,

protects against flea beetle;

wormwood, sage, thyme;luk-

aromatic herbs - from yaytse-

leeks, beets, cucumbers, pomi-

-laying cabbage butterflies;luk-

dory, chard, potatoes

leeks deters cabbage moth caterpillars

Cucumbers

Spray and curly beans

Radish protects against rootworm,

Tomatoes

beans, celery, beets, red-

spider mites, improves

ka, lettuce, cabbage, garlic, onions,

taste, positive effect

chives, radishes, spinach, fennel, borage, dill, chamomile

soil

Tomato

Celery, parsley, lettuces,

improves fruit quality, prodle-

cucumber, potato ring

endive, spinach, bush

Vaeth shelf life, discourages

Rabbi, fennel, dill

beans, radishes, radish, garlic, corn, cabbage, carrots, beets, chives, herbs: basil, sage, lemon balm, mint, savory

pests

Eggplant

Spray beans, thyme, onions,

improves soil quality, otpugi-

poorly tolerated by any

lettuce, spinach

Vaeth Colorado potato beetle

neighborhood, preferred single landing