Grafting fruit plants
grafted plants consists of two parts - the rootstock and scion, with the rootstock is a plant for which vaccination is carried out, and the graft is part of a crop plant that is grafted onto the rootstock.
Rootstock fruit tree - a plant or a part thereof, for which the vaccine is produced cultivar, the scion.In turn, the graft is a cultural aboveground part of the plant that evolved from grafted cuttings or buds. instill rootstock and after coalescence to form a single plant organism, but perform different functions.Rootstock provides grafted plant mineral and synthetic organic substances, water and scion - food assimilation.Rootstock essentially acts as a pump, pumping to the plant from the soil moisture with dissolved vital substances, thus ensuring the growth of the plant.This feature in the diet of the grafted plants leads to a complicated relationship between the rootstock and scion and their interaction.The relationship of parts may be favorable, which produce the normal development of the
early appearance of fruit,
durability of the graft,
beginning and end of the growth process of grafted trees,
0 time aging of plant tissues, and therefore, on their wintering and frost- "resistance to pests and diseases, % adapt plants to unfavorable soil and climatic conditions of growth.
However, all these effects are temporary, and therefore not genetically I are fixing in and disappear with the cessation of the effect of the rootstock on the grafted tree.Due to the large influence and value of the stock to it presented a number of requirements, namely:
rootstock should be well adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of places of cultivation of fruit trees,
«- a stock must have a sufficient degree of hardiness in cold regions anddrought in regions with hot climates,
rootstocks must also have good compatibility with cultivars grafted onto them.
Characteristics of rootstocks on the growth of the power of
stocks illustrate the differences in strength of growth and development may be an example of apple rootstocks.Slaboroslyh or dwarf (M27, M9, M2b), grow slowly, have limited the power of the branch does not grow tall.
Average height rootstocks.On characterized most of tall and branching force.
vigorous rootstocks (A2 - seedlings Antonovka and other seed stocks) reach a great height, form a powerful crown, requiring a lot of space to accommodate
Rootstock Breeding methods are divided into seed or non-grafted and vegetative or Klopova. seed stocks in the degree of growth forces are vigorous, clonal rootstocks, on the contrary, slaboroslyh.Fruit trees in the strong-seed stocks tend to have stronger growth, long durability, high adaptability to adverse climatic conditions, but later come into fruition.Trees on slaboroslyh clonal (dwarf) different rootstocks dwarfism, form weak, superficial, poorly fixed in the soil root system and therefore need support.They are less winter-hardy and drought-resistant than plants in the strong-growing rootstock, but is characterized by early entry into fruition, and the fruits of good quality.Trees on the semi-dwarf rootstocks are characterized by intermediate averages.
rootstocks are divided:
origin in the wild and cultivated;
on breeding methods on seed (non-grafted) and autonomic (clonal);
the strength of growth in the vigorous and slaboroslye.
3, depending on the use of sub 's objectives can be propagated by generative, ie zkraschivaniem from seeds and vegetatively - vertical and horizontal layers,
rooting and root, green and woody cuttings.For vegetative propagation of clonal rootstocks of apple and pear breeding method used horizontal and vertical layers, green and woody cuttings and root cuttings.
vertical layers, also called classic layering, are the main and most simple method of reproduction of clonal rootstocks.In this way, propagated rootstocks, which are easy to form adventitious roots, rootstocks such as quince and apple type M and MM.The mother liquor to obtain cuttings are elite perennial rootstocks that are planted in early spring, and cut all the branches at a height of 2 cm. As the regrowth shoots, cuttings spud queen cells in divided doses up to a height of 30 cm, hilling the soil in the area must be maintained in a wet state.This stimulates root formation.Autumn plant razokuchivayut and rooted cuttings are separated from the mother plant after leaf fall.Clonal rootstocks can also be obtained horizontal layers, who wear the name Chinese cuttings. this way propagated trudnoukorenyayuschiesya insufficient kustyaschiesya and prone to excessive growth of plants.Technique of horizontal layering is not recommended for slaboroslyh rootstocks such as M9 and M27.For horizontal cuttings fallopian plants in early spring the second year after landing heavily pruned, next spring, weak shoots removed, and a strong, well-developed shoots of last year placed in the groove depth of 15-20 cm, and fix by prishpilivaniya in a horizontal position and covered with earth.Before laying the last year's branches trimmed to 1/3 length, and lateral branching shortened to 1.5 cm. Such pruning stimulates the awakening of the kidneys downstream During the growing period of the kidney on the ground sprinkled shoots start to grow and produce shoots that are at the base okorenyayutsya.There are two ways to bookmark cuttings: circular and linear, along the line, the first is used more often in amateur gardens.When overgrowing shoots reach a height of 20 cm, hilling them several times during the summer, until the root zone formation will not be covered with soil to a height of 30 cm. In the autumn cuttings ra-zokuchivayut and divided into parts.When separating rooted cuttings from the mother plant in the horizontal branches are left short stumps, which eliminates the need for laying annual shoots.For seed breeding rootstocks of pome fruit crops it is recommended to use the seeds of these varieties, like anise gray, scarlet Anise, Cinnamon striped, Grushovka Moscow.parison of seeds produced from high-quality ripe fruit that can give a strong seed.Selected from the fruit seeds are dried in the shade, but not for long, the seeds are not damp and moldy, and stored in fabric bags, paper bags or wooden boxes.Seeds before sowing tested stratification procedure, after which they were sown in the soil.planting time may be spring or autumn.Crops are regularly watered, loosen and weed.When the seedlings have 2 true after cotyledon leaves holds the first thinning of seedlings, leaving the distance between plants of 3-5 cm, after 3-4 weeks of repeated thinning.During the growing period, the seedlings are fed 2-3 times.In autumn dig grown rootstocks, visiting, choosing suitable for grafting rootstocks selected associate in bundles and added dropwise in the winter.Ready for grafting rootstocks inner barrel should have a thickness of not less than 7 mm and not more than 10 mm in diameter and 5 cm length rooting zone. For overwintering rootstocks added dropwise to the soil or wet the substrate to a level of 10 cm above the root system formed.For vaccination is necessary in addition to the selected stocks have good part of the cultural plants - scions.Regardless of the method of grafting cuttings a variety of cultures have to be strong, to have a well-formed buds matured.Annual shoots on fruit tree with uneven due to their different positions inside the crown.Shoots deep shaded crown, so they are weak buds on them insufficiently formed and evolved, and so these shoots are not suitable for cutting cuttings.In no case will not go to the cuttings Volchkov shoots, as they ripen much later and have unformed buds.Most suitable for cutting cuttings of shoots on the periphery of the crown of the fruit of the tree in the middle and upper part of it, especially on permanently sunlit side.These shoots have developed, well-formed buds that can give strong shoots from the grafting of the grafted plant.There are two main ways of grafting cultivated varieties of fruit plants on rootstocks: budding and kopulirovka.