Types of shoots and buds
During its lifecycle fruit tree produces various kinds of shoots and
Types of fruit shoots
2. Fruit Bag.3 whorls
kidneys, and it is important to know their role in the development of the tree to be able to regulate their growth and have an impact on the interdependent processes associated with their development.
As already stated, the basis for the formation of the skeletal structure of the crown are the center conductor, which is a continuation of the trunk, and skeletal branches or twigs.Because skeletal branches develop overgrowing branches, is a small branch of tree shoots.New overgrowing branches developed every year and often annuals branches, especially long, mistakenly referred shoots.It is necessary to separate these two terms is considered to escape growth this year, which in essence is an escape, yet bears the foliage.As soon as the autumn already lignified Escape clears the leaves, it goes into the category of branches.Overgrown with branches divided into vegetative, or growth, and generative , or fruit.
Vegetative shoots provide an increase in the overall weight and size of the tree and the different origins and functions performed by them in the crown.From the apical buds grow shoots continue basic or fouling of branches, also called increments, as they annually increase the length and thereby swell the volume of the tree crown.
If the terminal bud blossoms in the year of its formation, it grows from a young runaway, called a growth year.This increase is very gentle, sensitive to frost, and therefore undesirable.One or two buds, located below the apex,
give branches competitors. The name they received because the strength of growth and placing competing for the leading position with the legitimate continuation of the branches.Below are side branches grow back respectively from lateral buds.If side branches are directed inward of the crown, therefore, they have evolved from the interior of the kidneys and thus are internal. From external kidneys develop branches and outward bearing the name of, respectively outer branches.They are important to distinguish to determine the location and orientation of the branches, which is cut close to the formation of the crown or pruning is performed.
Vegetative shoots - it shoots without generative organs, consisting of axle, leaves and buds.They can be apical and lateral, shortened and lengthened.The elongated vegetative shoots often called by growth shoots.In horticulture to rank vegetative shoots continued runners competing, regenerative, and korneporoslevye Volchkov shoots.
Vegetative shoots are different from generative growth and long lasting.. Some fruit crops such as apple, pear, plum, etc. These differences are clearly expressed, in other - less visible.After defoliation vegetative branches depending on the type laid on them kidney transformed into various vegetative and generative branches.
special position among the vegetative branches occupy tops, or water shoots, which are also often referred to as fatty shoots.
thin, strong, upright growing shoots with large interstices formed in heavy tree canopy, experiencing light deficiency.They usually appear on the perennial parts of large branches from dormant for years not to touch the kidney growth.The factors that stimulate the formation of tops, may be aging a tree, freezing of or damage to the upstream part of the branch.Due to the poor light tops become useless and can lay the flower buds only at improving the conditions of their development inside the crown, so it is recommended to remove these branches.
Volchkov shoots (tops, fat or water shoots) develop from dormant buds.They are usually formed in the old parts of the perennial branches or on the trunk with its natural aging.The formation Volchkov shoots can be caused by freezing of the tree, its mechanical damage due to improper pruning, hail, wind, etc.Volchkov shoots are characterized by intense, prolonged, pronounced vertical growth, elongated internodes, the shadow type of leaves, which are located inside the crown, as well as increased water content and porosity of fabrics.
Often the trunk of the tree out of the ground there are branches, regrown from the roots.This so-called root growth, extremely undesirable for the tree, as it has to spend extra power, moisture, nutrients, its totally unproductive part.Root growth should be destroyed, not waiting for its proliferation.
Generative shoots are the constituent elements of the crown of the tree on which there is laying the flower buds, and are directly involved in the formation of the crop.The name of the branch received due to the fact that only they can be placed generative buds (even if in a year, they will not develop), which determine the propensity of generative branches to fruit and their purpose to ensure the harvest.
By generative shoots are:
fruit twig - thin, often curved downwards annual branch length of more than 15 cm from the flower buds at the apex;
kopetso - straight, markedly tapering to the top of the truncated side branch 5-15 cm long with flower buds;
kolchatka - shortest-year branch length of 2-3 cm, very fragile with a well-formed sheet or flower buds;
spurs - shoots of 2-3-year-olds, one fruited;
spur - short fruit formation length from 0.5 to 10 cm;
whorls - short length of fruit formation to only 3 cm with a group at the top of the kidneys.
generative, or flower-bearing, escape is an escape, carrying some flowers or inflorescence, and later fruit. generative shoots develops from generative buds, having a flower or inflorescence primordia.Generative shoots may be very different from the vegetative as, for example, pome and stone fruit species, or a little different, like, for example, sea-buckthorn, honeysuckle and Actinidia.From the ratio of vegetative and floral areas isolated:
mainstream generative shoots, which are characterized by a strong predominance of vegetative zones and late flowering in leafy condition.This type is characteristic of the generative shoots of Actinidia, magnolia vine, honeysuckle;
poluspetsializirovannye generative shoots, characterized by clearly defined vegetative area, the apical location of flowers or inflorescence, flowering in leafy condition, which occurs simultaneously with the appearance of leaves, or directly in front of him.This type of generative shoots is characteristic of the quince, viburnum, apple, pear, mountain ash, chokeberry;
specialized generative shoots, characterized by strongly reduced vegetative area.Externally, they represent a single escape or inflorescence blossom in leafless condition and very early, often causing damage to the flowers of late spring night frosts.
This type of generative shoots is characteristic of plum, plum, cherry, sweet cherry, peach, apricot, hazelnut.
Fruit bags are thickened education on fruit twigs kopetse or kolchatke serving for the formation of fruit.On waking the flower buds on a branch of generative appears bloating, resembling in shape the bag, which explains its name.From fruit bags may develop additional generative shoots in the form kolchatok, kopets, fruit twigs.Every year increment in length, generative branches are transformed into spurs and ploduhi,