Description and varieties. Lilies - perennial bulbous plants of the lily family with underground scaly rays
structure of the plant lily
1. the bulb in the leaf axils.
2. leaf axils.
4. Kids are formed in the underground part of the stem.
5. The bulb of onion scales.
6. Bulb adventitious roots.
7. Nadlukovichnye (stem) adventitious roots
kovitsami.There are about 100 wild species, common in East Asia, the mountains of India, North America, and more than 3 thousand varieties.
Plants from 20 cm to 1.5-2 m tall, with linear or lanceolate leaves arranged alternately or whorled.The stem and leaves of some varieties and species pubescent.Stained stem ranges from bright green to brownish, sometimes with purple tinge.There bulbonosnye varieties and types of lilies: in the bosom of the leaves formed pochkolukovichki (bulbs) - special organs of vegetative propagation.Flowers are single or 2 to 40 flowers on the top of the stem are collected in inflorescence metelko-, ki
are several forms structure lily : funnel-shaped (or cup-shaped), chal-movidnaya, tubular, kubkovidnaya and campanulate shape.
special decorative flower give six heavily protruding stamens with long, brightly colored anthers, swinging freely on a long thin grounds.The size, shape and color of flowers vary, many flowers have a pleasant aroma.
Fruit - capsule, divided by partitions into 3 sockets.
underground part of the plant consists of a bulb and a bunk or single-tiered root system.Each bulb is shortened long escape, which consists of the stem portion, degenerated into a bulbous basal plate, and modified in the juicy onion scale leaves.The scales during the growing season delayed supply of nutrients.From stems adventitious roots depart.Bulb - body vegetative reproduction and breeding plants, storing nutrients.The root system is represented by adventitious roots - the onion, the stems grow from bulbs, and nadlukovichnymi (stem) forming the underground part of the stem.Plants with different flowering period, with flowers of from 2.5 to 30 cm and shades of any color other than blue.Moreover, hybrid varieties have not only outstanding decorative qualities - they are hardy and have increased resistance to disease.
Garden classification of hybrid lilies based on common biological characteristics and origin.In accordance with the international classification of all hybrid lilies are grouped into 9 sections: (1) Asiatic hybrids;(2) hybrids Marta rut;(3) Kandidum hybrids;(4) American hybrids;(5) Adinnotsvetkovye hybrids;(6) Tubular hybrids;(7) Oriental hybrids;(8) All other hybrids;(9) Specific lily.
Asian hybrids constitute the most numerous section of lilies, it represented the largest number of modern varieties of lilies.This category includes varieties differing in flower form, color, plant height.Inside this section, depending on the direction of the flower in relation to the stem are three subsections:
varieties with the up flowers,
varieties with flowers pointing downwards,
- varieties with direction toward flowers.
funnel shape of the flower (Asiatic hybrids)
Height plant Asiatic hybrids are divided into low-growing (up to 50 cm), medium-neroslye (100 cm) and tall (100 to 150 cm).
This section presents Chalmovidnaya, tubular and kubkovidnaya flower shape.Most large flowers depending on the variety reach 12 cm in diameter.
Asiatic hybrids are characterized by high frost resistance when grown in open ground.Timing of flowering varieties are hybrids of this group depending on the variety ranging from late June to early August.
Martagon Hybrids are certainly not as extensive section, as the Asian hybrids, but they are no less ornamental varieties and loved by growers.The flowers are varieties of this section are only Chalmovidnaya form
Chalmovidnaya flower shape (Asian hybrids, hybrids Martagon, American hybrids)
tubular flower shape (Asian hybrids, hybrids. Kandidum, Longiflorum hybrids)
and diverse coloring.A distinctive feature of the flowers is their krapcha-ness, that is, the presence of small spots on the petals.The flowers are 7-9 cm in diameter to form a powerful inflorescence flower stalk at the top, the number of flowers can be up to 20-25 pieces.Plant height 130-180 cm. Flowering of different varieties to the period from mid-June until the third decade of July.Martagon hybrids are not very winter-hardy when grown in open ground and need shelter.Especially should beware of late frosts in May, when the cover is already removed and the bulbs can be frostbitten.
Hybrids Kandidum are more numerically small section compared even with hybrids Martagon.The flowers are varieties of this section are only a tubular shape with a bent back the tips of the petals, giving the flower a light elegant look.Flowers are large, up to 12 cm in diameter to form inflorescence, which can have up to 8-10 flowers.Flowering varieties of different accounts for the period from mid-June to mid-July.The bulbs at planting should not bury.
American hybrids lilies are rhizomatous type.Varieties of this section differ tall plants, which can reach 200 cm in height.The flowers are mostly Chalmovidnaya form large, up to 10-12 cm in diameter, are collected in pyramidal inflorescence.In the inflorescence flowers are arranged obliquely downward and their number may reach 15-20 pcs Time of flowering occurs in July, with the onset of cold weather shelter is required.The small in relation to varietal lilies section.
Kubkovidnaya flower shape (Asian hybrids, Tubular hybrids)
Longiflorum hybrids - very tender plants in our climate is practically not grown in the open field.However, in the greenhouse varieties Longiflorum hybrids produce cut flowers of the highest quality and extraordinary decoration.Flowers are narrowed and elongated shape is very elegant and look great as a center in a variety of floral arrangements.This section of lilies are also called on the French model "Longiflo room" -gibridy.Varieties of this section is not enough.
Tubular hybrids after the Asian hybrids are the most extensive section on the number and variety of species.Depending on the shape of flowers and their arrangement on the spike in section tubular hybrids is divided into four subsections:
flowers Chalmovidnaya form (drooping),
flowers kubkovidnoy form,
flowers are tubular shaped,
«flowers are star-shaped (flat) forms.
tubular flowers are varieties of hybrids large elongated to 20 cm in length, color of flowers of different varieties of very varied colors cover the spectrum from bright red and crimson colors to pastel and white tones.The flowers of most varieties have strong pleasant aroma.Flowers of different shapes are collected in inflorescence flower stalk at the top, in the inflorescence may be as many 10 to 15, and some grades of up to 20 flowers.The plants are usually tall, 120 to 200 cm. Flowering various grades of tubular hybrids
bell-shaped flowers (Oriental hybrids)
to the period from mid-July to mid-August.Plants are hardy enough and hardy, so most varieties can be grown in open ground in the climatic conditions of the middle band.In winter it is recommended to shelter wintering lily bulbs.
Oriental hybrids are characterized by the extraordinary richness and purity of color and the huge size of the flowers.Large flowers can reach 30 cm in diameter.The color of flowers is most often combined: red with white, pink with white, white with red stripes or spots.The shape of flowers of different varieties from diverse flowers are tubular, chalmovid-term, kubkovidnoy form.Plant height also varies widely, Oriental hybrid varieties can be classified as undersized (50 cm), medium (100-120 cm) and tall (120-200 cm). Oriental hybrids quite demanding to the site, so they are growing and caring for them will require some effort.The main requirements of different varieties of lilies Oriental hybrids are protected from the solar wind and the locus of fertile soil with acid reaction from acidic to mildly.In the winter you want to cover the bulbs.
Peppers, Grand Paradiso, Carmen, America, those of Mont Negro, Red Sails, Fire King, Diana, Red Umbrella, Red Lion, Inchantment, Stones, Sinnabar.
Asiatic hybrids Yellow
Aelita, Golden Melody, Destiny, Citronella, Soulstarite, Sun, Connecticut Queen, Golden Summer, Bonanza, Nova Cento, Uellou Sabmarin, Yellow Bird, Laksheri. Orange and salmon
Rotaya, Orange, CT King, Natalie, Fancy, Harmony, Brandywine, Connecticut Yankee, Giselle, Volkhov. Pink
Veronica, Rosita, God, Côte d'Azur, Montreux, Svetlana. White
Star Sterling, Inzell, Mont. Bicolor
Rembrandt (pink and orange), Kansas (yellow and orange), Leonardo (white and pink).
Mrs. Backhouse (yellow), Gay Light (light pink), Marhan (orange).
Ares (orange), Apollo (white), Preylyud (red).
Shuksan (bright yellow), Cherrywood (red).
White Fox, Snow Queen.
Tubular hybrids Orange and yellow
Zeltite, Spitnike, HartsDizaye, Africa Ku
in, race Zanderbold, Golden Splendor, Limelight
(with a greenish tint).
Atvassara Richard Lyatti, Regalia Giants, Green
Mauve and pink
Vitseme, Pink Perfecto, Damson.
Oriental hybrids Red
Barbaresco, Stargazer, Bonfayer. White
Empress of-China and Imperial Silver (red spots), Crimson Beauty and Mona Lisa (with red stripes), Casablanca. Pink Pink Glory, Con Amore, Omega, Dzhoneys End.
Spirit (soft cream), RoyalDelayt (bright yellow), Royal Parade (red), Royal Dream (white), Moneymaker (pink).
lily regalia (white with yellow throat, purple
outside, height 100-150 cm).
Lilium candidum (white, height 100-150 cm).
Tiger Lily (orange-red, height
Lily Henry (mottled yellow, height 250 cm).
Terry lily (selection of new items)
Sphinx, Aphrodite, Fata Morgana.
breeding, cultivation and maintenance.Usually lilies are grown in one place without a transplant 3-5 years.During this time they form a nest of bulbs of different ages and sizes.If lilies in younger plantings are sick, they certainly dug and transplanted to another place without sticking so long periodicity digging.It should also be borne in mind that fast-breeding Asian lily hybrids are transplanted often, once every 3 years, and the slow-breeding Martagon lily and Tubular hybrids less.
transplant time to the new location should coincide with the end of the growing season, when the bulbs after flowering lilies grow stronger, in central Russia corresponds to the period from mid-September to early October.In everyday practice floriculture often use methods of vegetative propagation lilies.
Reproduction bulbs. Due to the formation of a single bulb of several kidneys resume in 3-4 years after planting in the Asian and 5-6 years, tubular in its place formed a nest of bulbs.Subsidiaries bulbs with independent root systems separated and planted as independent plants in mid-August.These terms can be shifted to the end of the month or in September.They are determined primarily by the state of the bulbs.After flowering, the bulbs of lilies are severely depleted, lose weight, become loose, thinner scales, wither.It will take 1 - 1.5 months after flowering, so the bulb gained strength - become large, thick and elastic.This process affects all factors: heat, the presence of moisture and food.Under favorable conditions in early August begin to transplant lilies June flowering periods (mainly Asian hybrids).
stems of lilies should be cut, leaving a stump, if at the time of the division they are green, with no signs of disease.If the stems died off, which indicates the presence of fungal diseases, after digging up the bulbs should be carefully unscrew them.
nests bulbs should dig out without cutting the roots, then shake off their land and explore.Nests usually fall, but sometimes they have to share with the effort.This is done by hand, without the use of tools after cutting stalks.Scales with rusty or brown stains to be removed and destroyed.The roots must be pruned to 15 cm, dead crop at all.Clean the bulbs and roots treated by pro-
Division nest lily bulbs
have debts with lily plant development in one place without a transplant formed a nest of bulbs, in which there may be several well-developed large bulbs.These jacks should be divided and planted bulbs one by one.This provides better nutrition of each bulb, enabling it to form a strong plant with a good flowering.To do this, dig a nest, the stalks are cut and hands breaking open the nest, separating the bulbs are often well-ripened bulbs in the nest decompose themselves
1. After the separation process and socket bulbs are planted in the new place.
2. Large bulbs with well-developed fleshy outer scales can be postponed to separate scales for reproduction.
3. The nest may be different in the size of the bulbs, they should be sorted out, depend on this depth of planting and the distance between plants
travlivaniya for 20-30 minutes in a 0.1% m solution of potassium permanganate.Planted separated bulbs in advance prepared land, which in dry weather on the eve of planting must be watered.Undersized lilies are planted at a depth of 10 to 12 cm for large bulbs and 7-8 cm - for small, medium -, respectively, 12-15 and 8-10 cm tall - in the 15-20 and 10-12 cm (depth available to the stemsbulbs).The wells for planting should be done by 10 cm deeper as lily transplanted with roots that need to be carefully spread, podsypaya under the collum bulbs clean river sand layer 2-3 cm, and then covered with soil.The minimum distance between bulbs when planting for these groups respectively: for the dwarf lilies - 15-20 cm, for sredneroslye - 20-25 cm for tall - 25-30 cm
Depth of planting lily bulbs
. 1. Kids, raisings of the bulb onions and developed on the scales.
2. The bulbs are medium in size.
3. Large bulbs
Planting depth of bulbs of lilies, see
Low Medium - Tall tall stature
bulbs 10-12 12-15 15-20
Diseases and pests.