Rejuvenation pruning is meaningful only in relation to healthy trees with trunks, strong well developed major skeletal branches that grow old naturally.When rejuvenation large trees require very strong crop, which can not be done at once, and should be carried out in stages.In the first year can be carried out sanitary cleaning of the crown and limit its size.In the second year can be achieved by shortening the strong pruning to rejuvenate the basic skeletal branches of the first and second order, and the third - to rejuvenate the overgrowing branches.It is also possible to consistently pursue renewal pruning the tree by levels, starting with the first lower tier.
Basic principles of crop plants are determined by the reaction of certain agricultural practices of cultivation and its impact on growth performance.Any fruit tree or shrub is an individual body with its characteristic features, and you have to show observation and understanding of the needs of this particular plant, taking pruning.However,
degree and type of pruning depends on the age of the plant, the conditions of its growth, crown shape, the type of rootstock, natural and high-quality features of a particular plant, you need to consider in order to produce the desired results and does not harm the plant.
roots of fruit trees, gradually expanding, extend far beyond the boundaries of the crown, and in vysokoshtambovyh forms of mass of the root system of trees can be up to one-third of their total mass.Sometimes excessive growth of the roots leads to inhibition of growth of the tree as a whole, and then their holding pruning required.In fruiting trees, grafted on rootstocks slightly increasing, the ratio of the total weight of the tree and its root system is changing radically as they
often constitute only 2-3 main roots without even providing them with adequate stability.
is important to know that the intensity of root growth varies depending on the season: it is the highest in spring and autumn, summer is reduced and the winter is stopped altogether.Woody plants are developed in the form of trees and shrubs, and it happens in different laws.At the heart of the tree is the growth of its shoots from the apical (terminal) bud, sprouts, sprouting not from the apical bud, are shortened.Bush, in contrast, is driven by the formation of many grow back from the bed apical shoots leaders, with the growth of the bush which, as it were constantly rejuvenated and refreshed.
main purpose of pruning at the stage of formation of the finished fruit tree, has entered a period of full fruiting is to achieve the optimum ratio between the young and the fruit-bearing shoots, the shoots have a mortgaged flower buds, as well as to prevent changes in the formed crown.The end result of pruning at this stage of development of the fruit of the tree should be to achieve an optimal balance between productivity and the intensity of the growth of shoots, only if such a balance can expect to receive high yields of quality fruit, the relevant indicators of the class.
increases stem thickness, branches, shoots lignification provided cambium, and only when there is a process of accretion of the scion with the stock by grafting, healing of wounds and overgrowing tree damaged areas.Foliage plays an important role in the life of the plant, since it is under the influence of the sun as a result of photosynthesis takes place and the conversion of carbon dioxide in water sugar and oxygen.Sugar accumulates in the fruit, from which it follows that in the absence of foliage impossible to harvest fruit quality, this requires a certain ratio of leaves to fruits.Since mid-summer in fruit trees begins the process of laying the flower buds, and the more intensive growth of shoots in length, the less energy is spent on the creation of a tree flower buds.That is why vysokoshtambovye breed fruit trees lay less kidney, since most of the nutrients consumed in the growth and formation of branches, shoots and the formation of wood.The processes of growth of shoots, bookmarks
flower buds and fruit formation are closely related, and intervention in one of them leads to a change in the other.This makes it possible to adjust the trim using these processes.From this it follows that a fruit tree or shrub should be considered as a single individual organism, and in accordance with its needs to carry out certain measures for pruning to maintain the health of plants and increase yields.
main objectives of pruning are:
redistribution of vital resources of the fruit of the tree of the body: moisture coming from the soil nutrients, plant synthesized substances;
shaping shrubs and trees with different ages of the crown, well-developed and well-placed branches;
forming lasting crown skeleton, capable of supporting themselves on the crop;
cutting unproductive branches;
removal of old, sick and damaged branches, and their parts;
removing unnecessary annual basal branches;
provision limiting the height of the tree;
prevent denudation of the trunk and skeletal branches of a tree;
regulation of the timing of passage of regular and successive phases of development of plants;
improvement in this regard, winter hardiness of plants;
regulation of intensity of fruiting, increasing the yield of fruit trees and shrubs;
increase in fruit size and to improve their quality;
combating the phenomenon of periodicity of fruiting;
lengthening the productive period of life of the plant.