Techniques related pruning
Along with the basic techniques of cutting, there are warning facilitating and complementing their action, combined with cropping and to regulate the growth and fruiting of fruit trees.
One concomitant pruning techniques is kidney blindness, or eyes.When cutting from a plant alienated many large and small branches bearing the vegetative and generative buds.But their formation tree were spent forces, nutrients, moisture.Thus, it turns out that when the part of the crown become unnecessary, they are removed, and the power plant are spent in vain.Of course, only on this basis, there is no reason not to trim, but in some cases the mass removed during pruning can be significantly reduced.To do this, use essentially proactive reception glare (plucking) of the kidneys and thereby prevent the appearance of Bad location shoots, which excludes their crop in the future.This is one of the oldest methods of care for fruit trees.It is also used in cases of appearance of a rival kidney, which is located behind the
rational methods is breaking out of shoots in their initial phase of growth.Pruning is known, involves removing, cutting Volchkov shoots, if there is no need to leave them.It is better to carry out this operation before the shoots will develop, grow stronger, and will take away from the strength of wood and nutrients.Breaking out young shoots warns wasting dere-
1. Cool branches grow back up can be translated into increased fouling and fruiting, placing them close in a horizontal plane by means of a spacer mounted between them.
2. To improve the structural skeleton of the crown shoots, slowing plant growth in height, can be translated into more rapid growth by giving them vertical position
using the tying twine to a tree trunk
arrange cool grow backup branches in the correct vertical position
Changing the angle of the branches
With pulling the thread or the establishment of special brackets can
tion growth energy and redistribute it to other parts of the plant.Break out shoots need, while their woody base is not, otherwise this operation can injure the tissue of the tree.
Technique change branches inclination, or bending branches, used to accelerate and enhance the fruiting branches of a fruit tree, and is based on the observation that vertical branches are usually stronger rising and sloping branches, which occupy a position closeto the horizontal, the best fruits Changing the angle of the branches
This supplementation is used in the formation of crowns of fruit trees, consisting in an increase or decrease the angle of the branches to regulate its growth and fruiting.From the position of the branches depends probudimost kidney and strength of shoot growth.When upright branches intensively develop shoots from the apical and adjacent to her kidneys, but weaker than the awakening buds located at the bottom of the branch as a whole branch growth in a vertical position stronger.In the horizontal position of the kidneys probudimost increased, but the growth of each shoot is weakening.Therefore, to enhance the growth of the branches give them upright, and to enhance the fouling and fruiting - horizontal or drooping.The method is based on the knowledge of metabolic patterns in the tree.Increasing the angle of the branches restrains its progressive growth, which increases fouling short shoots, accelerates the differentiation of generative buds and the formation of leaves.Adjust the angle of the first-order branches walking usually within 40-60 ° from the vertical.Changing the inclination angle of branches is an effective way to regulate their function and generative growth.
Possible translation branches to fruition with the help of bending, twisting, pulling the string with fastening to the trunk or growing below the branches by attaching straps
Bending branches, besides stimulating todonosheniya, it is the most important technique of forming trellis forms
Importantmake sure that runners starting from the place of regrowth is not bent, and placed in a vertical plane
wear.Consequently, the task of receiving yaatyaetsya Pridacha branches as close to the horizontal position.You can apply this technique and the opposite end: if you want to enhance the growth of any branch, it is necessary to make vertical, steeply upward position.The orientation of the branches can be changed from spring until late summer, when the gardener comes free from the hassle of other times.In autumn and winter, especially not recommended bend the branches, wood in this period is not enough flexible and branches will not take the desired direction.When pulling away is necessary to ensure that the branches do not form an arc on it quickly appear Volchkov shoots.It is impossible to bend thick branches at once, nebhodimo first make a small shallow incisions in the place of bending, which will allow the branch to change the direction and position with respect to the place of its fastening.To fix the desired position, the branch is recommended to fix the struts, tie with string or twine, one end of the free loop should be fixed on the branch, and the other tied to the trunk, to the downstream branches to the trellis or to a peg driven into the ground.To twine crashed into tree bark and it does not hurt the fabric by placing it on a scrap of thick fabric, a piece of rubber or any other cushioning material.An important motivation for taking the tree is fruiting branches banding, this method is quite effective when no effect cutting and Bending branches.Often tree begins to bear fruit after the spent ringing.The basis of this method is based on the laws of metabolism in the tree.As a result, banding severed blood vessels and, therefore, interrupted transport routes and reduced or completely stopped the outflow of products of metabolism and assimilates - stable organic substances - from a part of the branch, which was done on the ring.Thus, these substances remain in the branches where they are formed, to stimulate fructification.
Various methods and goals change the angle of the branches
1. Translation branches of fruiting, fixed using strings to the tree trunk.
2. Prigibanie to enhance growth, pulling the branches to the trunk in order to give it a more vertical position.
3. Bending branches, changing its vertical position to the horizontal approximate to weakening growth by means of a spacer
bark banding technique
1. should make two parallel incisions on the surface of the cortexat a distance of 1 to 2 cm depth from one another by the thickness of the cortex.
2. Lift the tip of the resulting strips of bark and remove it from the ring.
3. Edit ring on the bark garden pitch or a seal tape to protect the exposed tissues from drying out and of infection
banding technique is very simple: we need only to remove a strip of bark around the branches on the ring, spiral or semi-rings.First, you need to make an incision in the bark of one scheduled for the ringing branch location to retreat to 1-2 cm and make a second cut parallel to the first.Then a strip of bark between the slits should be removed, leaving bare wood.The wound should be immediately after the ringing gloss over garden pitch or a seal tape to prevent drying of unprotected tissues, to keep them from getting infections.Of the foliar mass ringed branches practically stops the outflow of products of photosynthesis, which greatly contributes to the transformation lay in the kidneys flowering.This process leads to the stimulation of fruiting.
unwanted application ringing
Banding can not be used for weakened trees.
Receiving ringing is not suitable for fruit trees, stone fruit species,
Banding can give a negative effect, which will result in drying of the branches.
He should girdle basic skeletal branches of the tree, as it will inevitably lead to a general weakening of the plant.