Common forms of crowns

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

crown form

fruit species

longline

varieties of pome crops with a distinct longline

located branches

rarefied bunk

apple, pear, apricot, cherry, plum

Improved tier

Apple trees on sredneroslye suspensions, pear, apricot, cherry, plum

Bezyarusnaya

Apricot

bushy

apple, pear, quince, cherry, plum, peach

Vazoobraznaya (or cupped)

peach, cherry, plum,apricot varieties of apples and pears

fusiform

apple and pear with a spreading type of crown on sredneroslye and

slaboroslyh suspensions, stone breed rarely

fusiform compact

Apple trees sredneroslye and slaboroslyh grades

Palmetta with sloping branches

apples, pears from sredneroslye to strong-varieties with high

degree of branching, rarely stonebreed

sensible branches to regulate its growth and give the correct direction.Shortening is used mainly for one-year shoots.The degree of shortening of the main branches are chosen taking into

account the characteristics and tree vigor.It is necessary to watch closely to Crohn's not too thickening, which used its periodic thinning.When thinning the crown of adult tree in the first place to cut the ring shrunken, diseased, broken, condensed and growing inside the branches of the crown.At the same time cutting the skeletal branches thinned and pruned some weak, thin and bare fruit-bearing branches.In aging trees gradually stops the growth of branches, even with good care, manifested pronounced periodicity of fruiting, fruit quality decreases.During this period, the development of wood-whiskers Haniyeh begins endings skeletal branches and even the extinction of some of them, starting from the bottom, loose or heavily shaded.In the lower part of the crown of old wood at the base of the main branch of the skeletal branches of the first order form Volchkov shoots.These trees are usually subjected to shortening greatly rejuvenating pruning.When rejuvenating skeletal branches are pruned to the regrowth area tops, which is about 1/3 of their length.At the same time shortening the skeletal branches perform partial slight thinning of the crown, basically removing withered, weak and broken branches.

Crohn fruit tree should:

be durable, resistant to keeping performance of large volumes of fruit and winter snow;

be easy to care and harvest;

be sufficient to obtain high yields of the number of main branches and fouling.

initial and most crucial step in the formation of the crown of fruit trees is tab main branches.

distance between the branches on trunks

When forming the crown of the tree is necessary to make sure that branches do not grow too densely, creating serious competition g EVELOPMENT each of them, and placed on trunks through a relatively regular intervals.

1. whorled branches forming cha bole branch located

with minimal run-up, actually grow from a single point, which hinders the formation of the skeleton of the crown.

2. The branches are located on trunks through: avnye intervals, allowing each of them to develop equivalent, covered with overgrown with branches and create a strong skeleton crown

selection and the initiation of the main branches of the crown of young trees in the garden are made to formdurable core of the fruit of the tree that is one of the basic conditions for its subsequent successful fruiting.Bookmark the main branches of the tree depends on the breed, as well as the strength of the growth and branching of a certain kind, probudimosti kidney pobegoobrazovatelnoy capacity and other biological features of fruit tree.Crohn's should be durable, easy to care and harvest, be sufficient to obtain high yields of the number of main branches and fouling.The main branches should be placed so as to avoid thickening.Bookmark the main branches begins when the side shoots on the central conductor made of length of 15-20 cm. When laying the first major wind

angle of divergence of the branches

When forming the crown is crucial to take into account and respect the angle of divergence of the branches from the trunk.The optimum angle between branch and trunk grow in the range of 45 to 90 °.Branch right too abruptly departs from the trunk up, which creates a substantial risk of it breaking off

wei young tree sapling is cut at a height of 70-100 cm from the surface of the earth, in the crown area lay corresponding to a given number of branches of the crown type.The strength of the core of the tree depends on the placement of the main branches on the trunk, so the laying of the main branches is very important to consider subordination main branches of the central conductor, and especially angles of a discharge from the center conductor.Branches with an acute angle of divergence of less than 40 °, is removed, as they are loosely attached to the trunk.The angles of divergence between closely spaced branches should be at least 90 °.Main branches of the upper tiers in any case should not be exposed to the target downstream.placing the second-order branches, usually singly, no closer than 35 cm from the stem and 50 cm tighter together.The gardens for the formation of young fruit trees most often used sparsely-tiered crown shape. It is closest to the natural shape of the crown, and is suitable for almost all species of fruit crops, but requires considerable space on the site.The main feature of sparsely-tiered crown is a single longline and placing the skeletal branches of the first order, which are located approximately at regular intervals at different heights around the central comparison of forms and degrees of crown of fruit trees

1. fusiformcrown

low shtambe.

2. Bonsai "ballerina", grown as kadochnaya culture.

3. rarefied-tiered crown shape polushtambovogo tree.

4. rarefied-tier krone vysokoshtambovogo tree

rarefied-tiered crown shape.

tion barrel.The skeleton of the crown is usually formed of 5-7 branches.There is also a choice of different arrangements of branches on the trunk, the most universal and common in horticulture scheme presupposes the existence of the three branches of the first tier and two in the second.The distance between the tiers for strong-varieties on rootstocks with a spreading crown should be at least 60-80 cm, and the center conductor (or trunk) is cut using a cutting method of translation over the last side branch.The angle between the skeletal branches and the central conductor should be approximately 50 °, the optimum angle of the branches in the crown arrangement can be achieved by using a sling using weights or installation spacers are also other possible placement of skeletal branches in the formation of sparsely-tier of the crown, where the branches are located 3-4whorl and sparsely remaining on the trunk or in small groups.The distance from the lower tier of branches until the next single branch is 50-60 cm. If the above is not a single branch, and whorl, which is a group of usually of two branches, the interval between them increases proportionately to 80-100 cm. At a distance of 50 to 80cm from the skeletal branches grow poluskeletnye forming crown branches.It is necessary that branch poluskeletnye increasing in length and thickness were skeletal by subordinate branches and would be located at approximately equal distances.The main task of forming a sparsely-tiered crown is that when pruning to achieve the most even distribution poluskeletnyh branches and fruiting shoots on skeletal

Formation crown

This crown style is closest to the natural form of the crown of the tree, it only needslightly adjusted in accordance with the features of cultivation of fruit trees.

1. The tree before trimming.

2. Trimming performed optimally.Proportioning the length of the central ovodnika and skeletal branches.

3. Pruning done too little, leaving a length of the center conductor and long skeletal branches, which would interfere with a proportional increase in tree branches

both tiers.If the krona has become too thick, it is getting worse light- and air permeability, less mature fruit, the wood dries and bad for long stays wet, which can cause it to rot.The first step in the formation of sparsely-tiered crown is crop seedlings at planting.At this stage the skeletal branches and side shoots are pruned the same half, and the center conductor is cut so that it towered over the skeletal branches of 10-20 cm. All the rest is not used to create a structural skeleton of the crown branches should be removed.However, below the crown shoots, are not the basis for future wood skeleton, temporarily leave, to improve the growth of the trunk thick.They can be removed at the base of only one year after tree planting.When pruning skeletal branches are pruned to an external kidneys that help to avoid too steep regrowth of shoots up in the development process.Follow-winter crop in the second and third year after planting aims to consolidate and continue the formation of the tree crown, given as a result of the primary crop at planting.The basic rule is to follow scrap orientation on the weakest of the left of the skeletal branches of the crown.It is also important to find the optimal degree of pruning, to avoid excessive elongation of shoots, which occurs when too strong pruning, or unsheathing separate sites on the central conductor, indicating light pruning, which left too long shoots.Generally, the center conductor and skeletal pruned branches are subjected to 1/3 up to 1/2 of their original length.In the skeletal branches of the need to select the strongest and most developed branches poluskeletnye spaced 50-70 cm apart, and leave them uniformly by cutting right up to the top of the tree.Superfluous shoots should be shortened to the first buds.If tillering process is too slow, one reason for this may be the shoots, left too long after the previous crop.In this case, in order to stimulate the formation of new shoots, they must be shortened up to last year's timber.On the contrary, if the tillering process was undesirable intense, you must remove 2-3 buds, located on the upper side of the skeletal branches immediately behind cutting spot.The center conductor must be shortened to the opposite kidney that he was right and well extended.When pruning is necessary to distinguish poluskeletnye branches and fruiting shoots, strong stems should be shortened to lower the kidney and Raspaud position close to horizontal ploskosp kopetsa not to cut.In subsequent years, caring for crown dolzheg be to maintain its shape to preserves the same ratio velichsh growth in length and thickness of the skeletal branches i center conductor.With the growth of the trees;the main criterion for supporting cutting is to ensure the balance of the growth;branches and shoots.Poluskeletnye branch circle grow back up, you should delay down giving them a horizontal position in the space, as well as to tie up, to stimulate the formation of flower buds.Sparsity-tier krone needs to maintain, to avoid undesirable reformation of the crown of the consequent exposure of its internal space with an offset sections forming the fruit to the periphery of the crown.