Overview: ancestors of apple, as scientists believe, have appeared in the Cretaceous history of our Earth.As the man himself enjoyed the fruits of wild apple trees, originated and developed its culture.Now the apple is grown almost all over the globe.Among fruit plants, it has been ranked as the area, and in the fruit harvest.Apple trees in the culture have a height of 3.5-4 m. Begins to bear fruit, depending on the variety, rootstock, area, farming techniques from four to eight years.The longevity of trees 20-50 years old.
In terms and keeping quality of fruits ripening apple varieties are summer (ripens in late July - early August, is stored per month), autumn (September to ripen, the fruit is stored 1-3 months), winter (removable reach maturity at the end ofSeptember and stored 3-5 months).Varieties of fruit which are saved later March are pozdnezimnim.Their fruit is removed in October, and the normal taste they acquire after a certain period of time.Can be stored 5-8 months.
Requirements: for gardens drained soil sod-podzolic, gray, forest, sand, clay and loam and peat.Before laying of the garden should conduct work aimed at cultivation of the soil on the site, that is, to increase the humus content and the improvement of physical and mechanical properties.Equally important liming areas for planting apple trees.
Composition: fruits contain proteins, carbohydrates, mineral substances. Potassium, iron, phosphorus and other trace elements such as copper, zinc, nickel, molybdenum, manganese, cobalt, vitamins, vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, C, E, PP, sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), organic acids (citric and malic).
But there in apples and special substances - pectin.They themselves are not digested, and therefore can not be digested, but adsorb toxic substances that are formed in diseases of the intestine, neutralize them and excreted.Besides apples contain a lot of iron salts, so they are very useful in anemia.Apples are indispensable man in the winter, when the power is basically more "heavy" high-protein food.
Apples are used as a means of multivitamin and blood in anemia, beriberi, as a fortifying agent, in preparation for surgery and in the postoperative period for prevention during epidemics.A good remedy for dropsy, edema, jaundice.
used as a handling agent in diseases of the heart, kidney, obesity, constipation.Has a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract, dysentery, colitis, delaying the formation of salts, urolithiasis.Has choleretic effects, stimulating the release of cholesterol in the intestine.
are useful in hypertension, acute bronchitis, help lower blood pressure, decrease in headaches, dizziness, noise in my head.
Selection of rootstocks for apple: depending on the conditions at the place of growth of the graft as a rootstock seedlings choose wild or cultivated forms of apple varieties, as well as strongly or sredneroslye clonal rootstocks.
Apple-Kitaika, very hardy, compatible with some varieties.
Malus sylvestris, the average winter hardiness is different, is compatible with most varieties.
Apple home differs vigorous, provides a good crop, is compatible with most varieties.
Seedlings local selected forms and varieties of apple, including Antonovka ordinary, Borovinka, Grushovka Moscow, Cinnamon striped, provide a good crop of quality fruit are highly compatible with most of the varieties are less vigorous than apple seedlings of forest and home to form a powerfulcrown.
A2 (seedlings Antonovka ordinary) differ vigorous, yield, average frost resistance, compatible with most varieties.
Average height, or semi-dwarf, rootstocks
Landing: planting time is determined by climatic conditions and the biological characteristics of culture.
For planting fit and spring, and autumn.In the first case it is necessary to wait until the soil is thawed, but in time to finish planting before bud swell (only 10 days).
For autumn planting necessary that plants have ripened and wood from planting to the freezing of the soil remained stable for at least 20-25 days.Almost autumn planting in the middle and northern bands is carried out in late September and October.For planting is preferable perennial seedling from which the leaves are removed beforehand.The roots must be fresh, nepodsushennye, branched, not shorter than 30-35 cm. The larger the root system, the plant is better to take root.
planting hole prepared in advance (for spring planting - in the autumn, when the autumn - not later than 2-3 weeks before planting).The size of the hole depends on the soil type and depth of the ground water.If the water table is deeper than 2 m, the pit dug to a depth of 60-70 cm in diameter 1-2 meters if the groundwater level is 1.5-2 m from the soil surface without landing are the landing pit:. Soil is deeply dug, makingorganic and mineral fertilizers, it is a pit the size of the root system.In situ ground water closer to 1.5 m planting should be carried out on the hills in height of 50-70 cm and a diameter of 1.5-2 m Planting hole is prepared as follows: first, it is necessary to select and place the top layer of soil the plant, remove the rest of the earth;.a bottom clog number whose length depends on the height of the lower branches of the seedling (they must be higher by 5.10 cm).The pit is filled upper vegetation layer, enriching it with 3-4 buckets of manure humus or peat 10 buckets.Add mineral fertilizers: superphosphate 500-600 g, 600-700 g of wood ash, or 400 g of potassium sulfate.The prepared mixture is poured into the pit on the north side of cola in the form of a cone-shaped mound slightly above the soil surface.All work should be done in advance to allow the soil to settle and thicken.
When planting a sapling put close to the Coke on the north side, straighten the roots evenly on the mound, and then they gradually fall asleep a good soil.Planting should be performed so that the root collar of seedlings was at 5-7 cm above the soil surface, given that the soil mixture in the pit gradually settles and the root collar will be planted plants at the soil level.Once the roots covered with earth, poured in a hole 2-3 buckets of water to the soil surface is not formed crust, well mulched with compost or peat humus.Seedling tied to cola soft twine eight, between the stake and the trunk, it is desirable to lay a soft material.First garter doing poorly (in anticipation of subsidence), 2-3 weeks, you can tie a string tightly.In dry weather after 10-15 days, you need more time to water the plants.
If planting is carried out in the spring, it is necessary to immediately shorten the branches of the crown.In the autumn planting plants pruning is done in early spring, before bud swelling after pruning side branches should be at the same level, and the center conductor - by 15-20 cm above the other shoots.Apple trees
enough winter-hardy and tolerate temperatures down to -25-30 ° C, complete winterkill apple - a rare phenomenon in central Russia.
To protect from frost and rodents trunks and branches of the base should tie fir spruce branches, top - impregnated with bitumen paper or burlap, tree trunks okuchit loose soil taken from between the rows, 30-35 cm layer harness the spring removed, the seedlings razokuchivayut..
Care: main activities are the formation of fruit tree, fertilizer, garden watering, pest and disease control.Acidic soils should be limed: 350-400 g