Characteristics of apple varieties

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Fruit Plants

lime per 1 mg 1 every 5-6 years.Organic, phosphorus, potassium fertilizers are applied in the fall after harvest, nitrogen - at the beginning of the growing season, immediately after the snow melts.However, 1/3 of their rules must be made in September and October, after falling off the leaves before the second wave of active root growth.

Fertilizers are buried digging the soil, the depth of which about wood 8-10 cm, further along the periphery of the projection of the crown -. 15-20 cm main digging the soil with fertilizer made in the autumn leaf fall on completion.In the spring should loosen the soil to a lesser depth.During the summer, tree trunks loosened as the emergence of the weeds and the formation of crust on the soil.After loosening the spring held mulching the soil with manure, humus or peat layer of 6 to 8 cm. Mulching reduces the amount

Year

diameter

Area

after

around-trunk

around-trunk

landing

circle m

circle, yfi

2

2

3

3-4

2,5

5

5-6

3

7

7-8

3,5

9,5

9-10

4,5

16

manure or

Ammonium

Superfos-

chloride

compost,

nitrate,

sulfate simple,

potassium,

kg

g

g

g

10-15

70

200

60

15-20

150

250

120

20-30

210

345

170

30-40

280

420

230

50-60

280

500

320

weeds, improves the thermal regime of the soil.In the autumn mulching material is embedded into the soil when digging.To heat the apple tree is less demanding than other fruit plants, but it is demanding to light and water (on demands for water is second only to a plum).

Watering in the middle zone are carried out taking into account the falling rain, soil moisture on the following dates: The first watering - during flowering, the second - before the June abscission of the ovary, third - 2-3 weeks before ripening varieties of summer and the last watering - inSeptember-October (during the fall root growth).

irrigation rates depend on humidity and soil quality.Thus, the approximate rate of irrigation per 1 m2: for sandy loam soils - 4-5 buckets loam - 5-6, loamy - 6-7 for clay soils - 8-9 buckets.Pests and diseases of apple and methods of dealing with them are described in the section Pests and diseases of fruit and berry crops.

Pollination: samobesplodna apple tree, that is not set fruit when pollinated with pollen of the same variety.Therefore, when laying garden one must have 1-2 varieties of pollinators.

Pruning: the landing pruning is very important for the formation of the tree crown.The first pruning apple trees is carried out in the spring after planting.When the landing pruning apple cut competing escape the central conductor, the central conductor of the varieties

with pyramidal crown leave above all the skeletal branches of 20-25 cm, the varieties with a spreading crown of his leave for 10-15 cm above the skeletal branches.Long skeletal branches shortened to 1/3, the branches outside the skeleton, folded up slumped position.

Annual formative pruning.By annual pruning, whose main objective is the formation of the crown, start one year after the landing trim.Kron apple rootstocks on the strong-form most often by sparsely-tier system.Skeletal branches are placed in one or twin tiers.At the height of the tree trunk to 70 cm form the crown of 5-6 branches of the first order, placing them on trunks may be different.The center conductor is cut at the same time at a distance of 40 cm over the last lateral branches of the skeletal branches.Very important tasks are moldable trim trim branches in force development and submission of the center conductor.Thickening branches and branches that grow inside the crown, and violating layering, you need to cut.

Olyulazhivayuschaya cropping adult fruiting tree is aimed at maintaining the tree growth rate, recovery pobegoobrazovatelnoy capacity and reducing if necessary the amount of excess fruit-bearing branches.Rejuvenating pruning and are subject to all the skeletal branches poluskeletnye.When rejuvenating pruning occurs shortening of perennial branches of 3-5-year-old parts.The reaction of the adult tree on rejuvenating pruning is retained for 3 years, after which it must be repeated.

Formative pruning apple When forming the crown, apple, from the second year after planting, it is necessary to cut

be cut

in the ring competing escape the central conductor, leaving only the necessary amount of skeletal branches, cutgrow back

inside crowns and shoots shortened skeletal vetvg recommended for shortening the skeletal branches to focus on the weakest of them

Rejuvenation pruning of fruit trees grown apple

1 .Cut branches to reduce crown.

2. Shorten the branches coming out of the zone of growth

3. Cut the branches to reduce crown and lighten the crown center.

4. Cut the branches to lighten the crown.

5. Cut Volchkov shoots.

6. Thinning thickening and withering branches.

7. Thinning thickening branches.

8. Shortening poluskeletnyh branches.

9. Cut the branches droop

Apple cordon

Bantam shaped apple on slaboroslyh or dwarf rootstocks is often grown as a

1. To shoots on the branches did not grow too crowded

and do not form whorls, old thick spur should be cut.

2. On the left branch of the required number of young, well-formed spur so it was spacious and they could develop

cordon, guiding growth of a tree on a wire frame

Good results gives way to shortening branches cutting annual incrementsyoung apple on spike, ie leaving a tenon up to 2 cm. Spinules serve as a reliable protection of the kidney, which is carried out before shortening, preventing it from drying.This method is very rational and allows simplify and speed up the cutting process.

Thinning spur

1. If spur on the branches of apple trees growing too densely crowded, dense, they should be thin, removing first the weak and old overgrown.Shportsa typically removed from the bottom side branches.

2. When thinning number of spur is removed,

so, the tree will bear fruit less abundantly, but will give larger and more quality fruits.If you do not thin out the spur, a tree is not strong enough to ensure the qualitative development of the resulting fruit

Harvest: summer apples are harvested when the skin is painted - green becomes yellow-white, fragrant fruits, and they are easy to be separated from the twigs.Summer fruits fall from the tree, even when seeds still white.Early cleaning contributes to a better storage of the fruit, and the fruit is fully ripened on the tree, stored for a brief period.Autumn apples begin to clean up when the seeds brown.In fruits that remain on the tree, the shelf life is extended.Finally, the winter apples.They are cleaned very late, as long as possible leaving the tree.

Use: apples consumed fresh, used to compotes, jams, jam, jelly, marmalade, juice and a variety of canned food.Of great importance are salts of malic and citric acid, in humans that are involved in the structure and improve tissue metabolism, and have an alkaline reaction is neutralized with acidic foods.This property acquires a special role in diabetes.potassium salts found in apples also have a positive effect on the body.Actually potassium promotes the release of bile and urine.