General information: first mention of pear there for 1000 years BC, the ancient Greeks.From Greek and Roman culture Pears moved into Western European countries.Here, the greatest contribution to the improvement of varieties and the establishment of their diversity made France and Belgium in the XVIII century - the birthplace of melting oily pear bere with their unrivaled taste.In Russia, the pear is cultivated from the XI century.She lives a long time, for several decades.
Requirements: for better growth of pear trees, the soil should be loose, breathable and water that can at the same time to keep an adequate supply of moisture in the root-inhabited layer.
Loves when the soil contains enough clay, fruits reveal all its advantages, if the soil contains lime.For planting pear suitable slopes in all directions.However, preference should be given to the south-west, west and south gentle slopes.
place for pears should be selected sunny, ventilated to the air near the tree does not stagnate.But at th
dry spring winds often burn the flowers, the summer is knocked off.Poor feels pear in places where the air is constantly saturated with water vapor.
composition: carbohydrates are present in the fruit with a predominance of soluble sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose), and organic acids, tannins, nitrogen, colorants, aromatic substances and pectin vitamins A, B, C and enzymes, a number of inorganic compounds.
Selection of rootstocks for pears: pear seedlings grafted mainly on wild species and cultivated varieties of pears grown in a particular region.
pear wood and pear home differs vigorous, average frost resistance and drought resistance, good compatibility with most varieties.
Cultivated local varieties and varieties of pears, such as Birch, Yellow, characterized by high frost resistance, drought resistance, good compatibility with all grades, as well as a number of advantages over the wild pear species, such, for example, early appearance of fruit, the stability of yields.
Quince A or quince Anzherskaya differs slightly riser is used for undersized and pear trellis forms, is used in the southern regions.
Quince Olive has good compatibility with cultivated varieties of pears, slightly riser is used for undersized and trellis forms pears, winter hardiness below average.
Landing: terms and requirements are similar to planting apple trees.
Care: measures and methods of care for fruit trees pear similar to applied to apple trees, although there are some features.In particular, a pear less cold-resistant, requires mostly sunny open spaces and abundant watering.
Pruning: on crown structure, the nature of the type of growth and fruiting pear has a lot to do with the apple tree.
1. If the tree has formed a lot of fruit ovaries, they must be thinned out, as a tree still not strong enough and juices form the ovaries of all the full benefits.The fruits are small, perhaps, limp and tasteless.
2. If necessary thinning shears to cut unnecessary ovaries, leaving only the best formed and located in the most successful areas of fruit branches.As a result of the thinning of the ovaries will be half of which will develop quality fruit
the landing cropping. first pruning pear seedlings after planting is carried out the same way as the apple: cut out competing escape the central conductor, the central conductor shortened, long skeletal branches are cut to 1/3 branches attached close to horizontal position.
Annual formative pruning. For pears on the vigorous rootstock often choose sparsely-tiered crown shape that best corresponds to the natural shape of the crown pears.Crohn's pears are well formed in a natural way, so it is quite a small corrective pruning to comply with subordination of the skeletal branches of the central conductor, enhance fruit branches, stimulating the formation of poluskeletnyh branches.
Rejuvenation pruning fruiting plants grown pears
During pruning cut on the ring aging, dry up, otplodonosivshie branches, and branches, directed inside the crown, Voltchkova twigs and branches beyond kronoobrazovaniya zone.Such pruning improves light and air modes inside the crown.
Crohn pear has a strong central conductor, characterized by the ability pobegoobrazovatelnaya sredneydo low.The bulb is typically formed by sparsely-tier system.
Strengthening shoot formation can be stimulated by shortening the shoots on 1/4 of their length, which after trim give the side branching.If necessary, restore the subordination of the branches make a larger crop.Pear different average frost resistance and even with a slight freezing of forms many shoots Volchkov.Unnecessary Volchkov shoots are cut at the ring, and some are left to form by cutting and bending poluskeletnyh branches.When forming the crown is important to consider this time as the formation of fouling of branches, located close to the base of the skeletal branches.It is important to obtain a compact crown with the placement of the fruit close to the axis of the crown, as well as to protect against winter sunburn trunks and bases of the branches of the first order.
Rejuvenation pruning. adult fruiting pear tree requires a systematic, once in 2-3 years, rejuvenation pruning, during which removed the shoots, thickening crown, improved lighting and crown ventilation mode.For pears, as well as for apple trees, pruning methods are used to reduce the crown.
In forming the pear trellis or palmettes lay 8 to 12 skeletal branches arranged in a vertical plane along the line.The height of the trees formed by type palmetto is in the range of 2-4 m, width crown reaches 3 m. The branches usually arranged in three tiers, and not less than 50 cm and not more than 80 cm, depending on the tree vigor with the distance between them.Overgrown with branches are also located in the vertical plane and are formed without bending at intervals of 20-35 cm
in the form of tapestries form the pear trees on the weak -. Sredneroslye and suspensions, pear trellis very decorative and bring a rich stableharvest.When placing a wall structure trellis shaped trees get protection from the wind, as well as additional heat that accumulates the wall during the day and gives the plants with the evening temperature is lowered.
Harvest: summer and early autumn pears should be removed for a week and a half before the normal maturity.Fold them into the collection baskets, canvas bags with detachable bottom or the bucket in a soft casing.Fruits should be put carefully not to pobilis barrels.They should be stored in a cool place, then they gain the flavor and become oily.When dospevanii on the tree they will malosochnymi and mealy.When harvesting of late varieties, do not remove them from the tree, if the rain drizzles or is fog.Not suitable for this work, and the early morning or evening when the trees sits dew.The best time - a sunny day.Harvested fruits first need to lay down in a well-ventilated room, where they will lose the excess of free water, which will give the opportunity to keep them fresh longer.
Use: value of pears is the ability to use its fruits in fresh or processed form.Good and dried pear, candy, jellies, pekmez and drinks.
Use pears and in traditional medicine.They tend to mostly fixing, diuretic, disinfectant, antipyretic and antitussive effect.These properties have the fresh, dried fruits, as well as juice, broth and jelly.Pears are useful also in urolithiasis.Due to the rather high content of phenolic compounds pear strengthen blood capillaries have protivoskleroticheskoe and anti-inflammatory effect.
In acute digestive diseases pears should not be eaten due to the presence of a significant amount of fiber.