Early-maturing - Captain (medium berries, black, with a thin skin, sweet-sour), Kuriu Dzintars (yellow berries, juicy, sweet), Non-sluhovsky (bushes low spikes smallberries large purple-red flesh temnookra-weighted, juicy, sweet), Eaglet (large berries, black, with strong waxy bloom, acidic), Spring (bush compact, large berries, yellow-green with a reddish tan), Amber (high bushes, slaboraskidistye; berries are very large, amber-yellow, the skin is thick, taste sweet and sour), Spring (ultraranny variety, straw-yellow berries, the skin is thin, very sweet).
middle- - Belarusian sugar (large berries, light green with whitish veins, flesh green), Green bottle (large berries, green or dark green, weak pubescence), Gingerbread (berries are medium and large, dark red with green veins), Malachite (the berries are large, green, the skin is thin, transparent, good sour taste), Russian (the berries are large, paired, broadly oval, dark red with a thick skin), Change (small berries, red), Phoenicia (berries are very large, green, completely covered with a dull purplish-red blush uneven, without pubescence).
Late- - Masheka (spikes rare and long, creamy-yellow berries, without pubescence, sweet-sour) and Ravolt (dark red berries, almost black, without pubescence, sweet-sour).
Requirements: shrub adapts well to different soils.Not only tolerate waterlogged, strongly podzolized, acid and cold.This is due to the fact that its roots are located in the shallow soil (the bulk at a depth of 50-60 cm) and does not tolerate excess water and little air.It grows well on it loose, nutritious, fertile soils.For gooseberries necessary sunny, protected from cold winds sites.
Composition: chemical composition of gooseberry fruit depends on the variety and growing conditions.On average, its berries contain sugar (glucose and fructose predominates), acid, a small amount of vitamin C, carotene, and vitamins E and here u significant amount.In the last over ripeness of fruits increased content, sugars and acids decreases.Gooseberry rich in potassium and iron, it contains up to 2% cellulose and 1% pectin.
Landing: planting gooseberries better in the fall.To prepare the seedling planting hole diameter and 40 cm in depth, sometimes increase the diameter of 60 cm. The pits make loam mixed with fertilizer (nitrogen is not added).Seedlings are cut, leaving the runners 20 cm in length with 4-5 buds.The distances between the rows when planting - 2 m between plants in a row - 1.5 m. Seedlings are lowered into the pit without tilting slightly recessed from the root neck (5-6 cm).But much bury the neck should not be, especially on heavy clay and loamy soils, because it can slow the growth and even kill the seedling.
Reproduction gooseberry layering
On one or several closely spaced branches to the ground to make a cut, bend down to the ground, dig a shallow hole, put it in her branch, fill the earth and water the hole.During the growing season to maintain soil moist.By the fall in the context of branches formed roots.Rooted seedling is usually separated from the mother -asteniya shears next spring and are planted on Rearing or for permanent
Gooseberry well propagated woody, green cuttings and layering.
Care: for the good of gooseberry needed loosening the soil under the bushes, weeding weeds, fertilizing and pruning.
When loosening must not forget that the soil should be processed finely, and in autumn dig to a depth of only 6-8 cm. If gooseberry was planted in the spring, after 2-3 weeks of planting, you can feed nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of 13-16 g of ureaper 1 m2, it repaired in the soil and well watered plants.Such doses of nitrogen fertilizers contribute annually the first 3 years after planting.In the future, depending on the cultivation of the soil 1 every 2-3 years are the major fertilizer per 1 m2: 25-30 g of urea in the spring, and 6-8 kg decomposed manure or compost 50 g of superphosphate, 20-30 g. potassium sulphate - autumn.After flowering, during the formation of ovaries and the growth of shoots and berries during filling is recommended that feeding liquid organic fertilizers, aligning them with the watering.The soil around the bushes in order to better retain moisture zamulchirovat.Hanging branches bushy gooseberry, planted in the planting rows, pick up on the thick mesh or grid set to a height of 25-30 cm on both sides of the rows.Pests and disease in gooseberry and blackcurrant same.The same and methods of dealing with them (see. Pests and diseases of fruit and berry crops).
Pruning: formation gooseberry bush pruning begins with the landing.Strong branches planted shrub pruned to 3-4 of the kidneys above the ground, weak - 1-2 Kidney From regrown branches in the next season, should choose 5 most powerful and well-located.They will form the basis of the bush, the extra branches should be cut at the base.A year later, gooseberry bush must be in the same way to supplement another 3-5 branches.Thus formed gooseberry bush should have a 8-10 strong branches, which are its crown.In subsequent years, it is necessary to maintain the crown in order.The main requirement for the normal development of gooseberry bush is sufficient solar illumination of all areas of the crown, as gooseberries absolutely does not tolerate shade.With a lack of sunlight bush growth is slowing down, the branches are aging prematurely, reduced crop yields and quality of berries.To avoid thickening of the crown, should be regularly cut old branches and otplodonosivshie over 8 years, to remove the weak and thin shoots, of which still do not develop full-fledged branch.Nevyzrevshie, podmerzshie or damaged mildew tops of the branches must be shortened to healthy wood.We launched thickened bushes need to make sanitary pruning for the purpose of clearing the crowns.It should start with the removal of old, dry rubbing, broken, sick and polegshih branches, then remove the part of the healthy branches, leaving only the 10 best-located.Unhealthy tops of the branches must be cut to the good wood.
annual thinning gooseberry bush
We can not allow the thickening crown of gooseberry bush, as the plant does not tolerate shade.To do this annually thin bush, cutting old otplodonosivshie, badly located and weak branches.The gooseberry bush must always be no more than 8-10 branches, which provides good coverage of all areas of the crown
Thinning old running bush gooseberries
If the bush is very prosperous, long and thin out the running clearance is necessarycarried out in several stages.
1. First, you need to hold a sanitary pruning bush in which the crown of the cut and remove old, dry, rubbing, broken, diseased and polegshie branches.If you need drooping branch of gooseberries for reproduction by layering, you can leave.
2. After the sanitary clearance can proceed to the formation of the remainder of the bush.To do this, select the 8-10 most well-developed and well-spaced branches, which will form the basis of a new crown of the bush, cut the remaining branches at the base at the level of the soil
Poorly located and rubbing shoots and podmerzshie, nevyzrevshieand affected by the disease tops of the branches must be shortened to healthy wood.Downy mildew affected areas after cutting the branches to be burned, and tools disinfected
at a young plant gooseberry fruit thinning is often conducted on the stage of the size of a pea.This is necessary in order not to deplete the power plants, which can not provide juices and nutrients all tied off.Left fruits are large and of good quality, and the plant will save power
Harvest: berries gooseberries ripen almost simultaneously in 1.5-2 months after the beginning of flowering.In contrast to all the other berries gooseberries collected in full and the technical maturity, which occurs 10-15 days before complete.gooseberry fruits of technical maturity and a solid phase, begin to acquire color, typical of the variety.These berries are suitable for all kinds of processing.If they are intended for local consumption, gather berries when they reach full maturity.If the fruits of gooseberry needs to be transported, they are collected a few days before full maturity.After collecting the berries gooseberries many varieties ripen badly.In the rainy season the varieties with brightly colored fruits is recommended to remove the berries when they become pink - to avoid losses from cracking.To the collection of berries not hurt the hand spikes, it is recommended to work in leather gloves or wear on the left arm canvas gauntlet.Ripe berries should tear off along with the stem.
Use: ripe gooseberries - delicious dessert berry that love both adults and children.The berries get a tasty jelly;at home are used to make jam, jelly, juice and delicious diet drinks.Elevated levels in the fruit pectin promotes the binding and excretion of heavy metal man.In folk medicine, they are recommended for chronic constipation, kidney and bladder, in certain skin diseases and beriberi.It is used to strengthen the walls of blood vessels in diseases from atherosclerosis and hypertension.
varieties with a high content of sugars in the berries are not recommended for patients with diabetes and for those suffering from gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcers are contraindicated during exacerbation of the disease because of its high fiber content.