Hemorrhage in the eye - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Hemorrhage occurs as a result of damage to the vascular wall by mechanical action and pathological conditions (illness or injury).
1. The most common causes are blunt eye injury (contusion).When damage occurs due to the force directly to the eye (a blow to the eye) or through the surrounding eye tissue is damaged bones of the skull, orbit (blow to the head), and even to other parts of the body (chest trauma, the body).Manifestations of concussions do not always correspond to its actual weight.Externally, no significant injuries can lead to serious changes in the eyeball.Damage to the organs of vision accompanied by closed trauma of the brain.
structure of the eye
are three degrees of concussion:
I - light.Not happening structures of the eye damage and vision is restored completely.
II - average.There is damage to structures of the eye, the vision is reduced to light perception.
III - heavy.Irreversible structural changes that lead to death of the functional and cosmetic
2. Bleeding in the eye can occur due to circulatory disorders, damage to the vascular wall in the common diseases of the body.When hypertension, atherosclerosis narrows the arteries and thickening of the vein (retinal angiopathy), gradually leading to a breach of elasticity of blood vessels, increasing their fragility.vascular walls, atherosclerotic plaques covered with sores and lose their elasticity.Becomes less resistant to mechanical stress.And when increased blood pressure vessel ruptures, extravasation occurs.In diabetes, regardless of type, developed diabetic retinopathy - damage the retinal blood vessels.As a result of metabolic processes, there is a weakening of the vascular wall, develop microaneurysms (bulging walls of blood vessels), which lead to bleeding.Haemorrhages often occur in connective tissue diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, vasculitis, and others.), Diseases of the blood (anemia, leukemia), disorders of blood coagulation (coagulopathy), resulting in increased vascular permeability and fragility.
3. Intraocular tumors.There is a compression and vascular injury.
4. Inflammatory diseases of the choroid (uveitis), the iris (iritis).
5. Myopia (short-sightedness - a violation of the distance).Strained eyes with myopia leads to the formation of cracks choroid.
6. Anomalies of the vascular system of the eye.
7. Intense physical exertion;in obstetric patients during labor, with strong vain attempts;sharp and strong crying, coughing.
hemorrhages occur in the anterior chamber, the vitreous body, the retina in the eye and eye socket itself.
Hemorrhage in the anterior chamber is called hyphema.
is a uniform red formation with smooth contours.Blood spreads across the anterior chamber, but the vertical position, generally settles to the bottom.Vision is usually not reduced if hyphema not cover the area of the pupil.A distinctive feature is the rapid absorption, for several days.
specific treatment hyphema requires sometimes prescribe potassium iodide drops 3%, 3 times a day for a week.But if hyphema persists for more than 10 days, especially in the elderly, it indicates the development of complications of glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure), uveitis (inflammation of the choroid), cataract formation.In this case, it is removed by surgery in ophthalmology department.When an hyphema should avoid taking NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen, etc.) in any form (tablets, eye drops), anticoagulants (heparin) since they can disrupt blood clotting.Some glaucoma patients can develop when receiving atropine.
vitreous hemorrhage - hemophthalmus.
arises when damaged choroid.Behind the lens is clear homogeneous brown education.Full (total) hemophthalmus leads to loss of vision, and partial - to its significant reduction.Patients worried about the presence of dark moving spots of light flashes before his eyes.Hemophthalmus - it's hard to defeat the eye, requires immediate medical attention.With timely and vigorous treatment in a specialized ophthalmologic center vision can be saved.Residual hemophthalmus can lead to serious complications: retinal detachment, atrophy of the eyeball.
external manifestations depends on the extent of retinal involvement.Patients complain of blurring of objects in front of the eyes, floating flies, mesh before the eyes, which is displaced during eye movements, decreased visual acuity.Extensive and frequent hemorrhage can lead to complete loss of vision.
For a single and limited hemorrhage recommended rest and relaxation for the eyes.Assign sosudoukreplyayuschie and hemostatic agents.In urgent hospitalization in ophthalmology department need patients with extensive retinal hemorrhages.
Hemorrhage in the eye socket.
most common cause - a contusion eye orbit, but it can occur in vasculitis, blood diseases.
Appears exophthalmos (exophthalmia) - a dramatic shift of the eyeball forward, limitation of eye movement, double vision sight (diplopia), decreased vision, bleeding in the skin of the eyelids and conjunctiva.Bleeding under the skin of eyelids in the form of "points", which appears in a day later - a sign of a fracture of the skull base.
1 Complete blood count.The rate of bleeding and clotting time.To exclude coagulopathy (bleeding disorders and diseases of the blood).
2. Blood Sugar.To exclude diabetes.
Mandatory inspection ophthalmologist and physician even small hemorrhages and minor injuries.
Hemorrhage in the eye is the result of injury or disease.It can not be cured at home.Early treatment of the underlying disease to prevent further bleeding in the eye, and the development of serious complications (blindness).
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