Headache ( headache ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Head

No state more frequently and having more numerous and varied reasons than a headache.More
GAZakhar'in in 1889 wrote: "Painful condition of the soft parts of the head and bones of the skull and face, so many nerves of the head, organs, higher feelings, and most importantly the brain, which, in addition to its independent lesions, affect in different ways the impact of disorders in all other parts of the body, that causes the frequency or severity of headaches. "Head pain is any pain in the head.

Possible causes headaches

Every person, even healthy, ever had a headache.Any colds with an increase in acute respiratory infections such as temperature, SARS is required to give an intense headache.Stress, changes in weather conditions, overeating and malnutrition, sleep disturbances, overheating and overcooling, physical stress, smoking, alcohol, any disease or condition that leads to oxygen starvation and malnutrition of the brain and its membranes, lead to headache.Headache is present in many diseases and

sometimes can be the only manifestation of the disease and leading.Headache can be caused pathology of any structures of the head and neck.

At the heart of the development of the headache is irritation of pain receptors of the dura mater, brain arteries, trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, vagus nerves and the skin nerves, muscles of the head, cervical spinal roots.The most severe headache occurs during stimulation vessels, cranial nerves, dura mater, as they are richly supplied with nerve sensitive receptors responsible for the pain sensitivity.Neurochemical changes cause headaches and affect the emotional - behavioral aspects of pain perception.The emotional component determines the degree of pain, facial expressions, gestures, posture, verbal description of pain.

headache may be throbbing, compressive, bursting, dull;mild, moderate and severe, one-sided and double-sided, frontal with a feeling of pressure in the eye, temporal, parietal, occipital;different duration and frequency;with and without forerunners;with accompanying neurological symptoms and without it;with an increase in blood pressure and lowered blood pressure;with nausea and vomiting;with vertigo;with visually impaired ... as you can see a variety of combinations of suffering and enormous.The intensity, duration, location, nature of the flow, repeatability are important for diagnosis.

head ache, and sometimes in a healthy person, but intense pain for the first time emerged, often repetitive, the same type, growing must necessarily lead to the doctor.The main thing is not to miss serious disease addicted to analgesics.

According to the international classification distinguishes headache:

  • - migraine,
  • - tension headache,
  • - cluster headache,
  • - headache not associated with structural brain damage,
  • - with traumatic brain injuries,
  • - vascular diseases,
  • - in diseases of the intracranial structures,
  • - when taking medications, chemicals, and lifting them,
  • - for infections,
  • - with metabolic disorders,
  • - the pathology of the cranial nerves.

Headache may be primary, that is to be the primary manifestation of the disease: tension headaches, migraine, cluster headache, idiopathic headache, pain from compression of the outer, cold, pain on exertion, sexual activity.

Cluster headache

secondary headache - a headache, as a manifestation of another disease: head injuries, vascular diseases, intracranial diseases, infections and intoxications, metabolic disorders.Secondary headaches can occur as a result of countless reasons, ranging from life-threatening, such as brain tumors, strokes, meningitis, and subarachnoid hemorrhages to less serious but common causes, such as the abuse of caffeine and cancellation of analgesics (pain medicine).Many people suffer from "mixed" such as tension headaches, in which the secondary headaches may trigger migraine.

disease, a symptom of the buyout can be a headache

Headache - a mandatory symptom of vascular diseases: vegetative-vascular dystonia, hypertension, transient ischemic attack, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hematoma, vascular malformation, arteritis, venous distsirkulyatsii.

vascular dystonia can produce very diverse headache and its combination with dizziness, nausea, neurotic disorders, blood pressure fluctuations.Exacerbations occur more frequently with changes in weather conditions, nervous - emotional overload.

When hypertensive disease headache often localized in the occipital region, arching, combined with the heat in the head, dizziness, noise in my head, flashing "flies" before their eyes, staggering, nausea, pain in the heart.

Venous dysfunction give a dull bilateral headaches in the evening and the morning, heaviness in the head, the pressure bursting.

When acute stroke its first symptom is sudden intense headache.

When temporal artery - throbbing severe headache in the temporal region.

Headache in vascular diseases combined with cognitive impairment, fatigue, emotional lability.

Headache occurs when traumatic brain injuries - bruises, concussion, brain contusion, brain compression, epi- and subdural hematomas.Acute traumatic brain injury is always accompanied by a headache.Depending on the severity of the injury and the degree of loss of consciousness is different pain intensity and localization, accompanied by nausea and vomiting.Sometimes when hematomas delayed traumatic headache, that is, immediately after the injury all right ( "lucid interval"), and after a while the condition worsens, an intense headache and focal neurological symptoms.The headache may be a consequence of craniocerebral injuries, in violation liquorodynamics.

Headache is a symptom meningitis, encephalitis, an infectious viral and bacterial, viral infections .Acute infection always makes his debut with the high temperature and headache, diffuse, bursting, gravity, with a feeling of pressure in the eyes and ears, often with nausea and vomiting.Later joined by neurological symptoms in the case of meningitis and encephalitis, in the case of acute respiratory infections - a runny nose, sore throat, cough ...

headache occurs when a single or prolonged taking nitrates, alcohol, ergotamine, analgesics, caffeine, drugs, birth control pills, hormone drugs.

Headache occurs when hypoxia any genesis .

Headache is a symptom for eye diseases - glaucoma, strabismus, refractive error.In glaucoma, the patient may experience a headache that is dull, aching in nature, often associated with pain in the eye for an eye.The patient feels as though bloating, heaviness of the eye and the mind.This is primarily associated with high intraocular pressure.

Headache is present at diseases of the ear and sinuses, teeth.Localization of pain corresponds to the area of ​​inflammation - over the maxillary sinuses or on the front, shooting in the ear associated with the movement of jaws chewing.

Headache - obligatory symptom neuralgia cranial nerves : trigeminal, glossopharyngeal, occipital.This brief paroxysmal very severe pain, stabbing, "sweep", "like an electric shock," in the zone of innervation of the affected nerve.The most common attack is triggered by talking, swallowing, chewing, brushing teeth, shaving, washing with cold water, emotions, physical exertion, touching the trigger points.From the intense pain the patient dies, does not speak, she does not eat.In the interictal period there is no pain.

Headache occurs when pathology cervical spine - degenerative disease, instability of cervical vertebrae, discogenic radicular symptoms.The head at the same time hurts most in the occipital or occipital-parietal region and the neck pain associated with the rotation of the head, tilt the head forward and painful neck muscles.The pain can be severe blunt and can be intense, long-term, often one-sided localization possible with radiating to the shoulder girdle and arm.Cervicogenic headache pain provokes mechanical factors - movements in the cervical region, forced prolonged awkward posture, hypothermia, the external pressure on the muscles of the neck or the spinous processes of the cervical spine.

headache may be a symptom of metabolic disorders in oncological diseases, diabetes, renal failure .Headache with dull, heavy, aching, constant or increasing, accompanied by cognitive impairment and asthenia.

Headache in infectious diseases

Headache - a fairly common symptom of infectious diseases.Most often it is a consequence of intoxication, ie,effects on the body of the sick person microorganism toxins (most often with the flu, SARS).This headache occurs on the background of the typical signs of intoxication - fever, sometimes chills, muscle aches, pain in the eyes.The most common headache for colds and influenza of moderate intensity, and passes after taking fever-reducing medicine.

However, headache is also a characteristic feature of the terrible disease - meningococcal infection.When the most dangerous forms of menigokokkovoy infection - meningokokktsemii (when the bacteria get into the bloodstream) and meningococcal meningitis (with the defeat of the meninges) - a headache is one of the first symptoms.Meningococcal disease is very dangerous, there are lightning-fast form of the disease, leading to death within a few hours;Early diagnosis of the disease is extremely important for successful treatment.

In all cases, except for a headache present symptoms of the underlying disease.Differential diagnosis of the doctor involved.

patient survey with headache

Given the variety of reasons that can cause headaches, the patient needs a comprehensive examination.Needed advice ophthalmologist, internist, neurologist, neurosurgeon, if necessary, an infectious disease specialist.

From laboratory tests often use a common blood test, sugar, lipidogram further if necessary.Functional study includes Doppler, electroencephalography, CT and MRI, examination of the cervical spine and thyroid.The amount of assigned individual examinations and appointed with all the patient's complaints and found somatic diseases.

Treatment headaches

Headache treatment depends on the type and severity of headache and on other factors such as the patient's age.Treatment of headache as a symptom of these diseases, is to treat the underlying disease.Establish an accurate diagnosis, the treatment prescribed by a doctor.

For relief of acute headaches are analgesics - non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - acetaminophen, ibuprofen and combination products based on them with the addition of antispasmodics, caffeine - solpadein, pentalgin, Panadol, have noshpalgin ... tablets and capsules, instant powders and effervescent tablets - a hugearsenal in the fight against pain.Independently can be taken once or twice, but long-term use is not valid - you need to go to the doctor to look for and eliminate the cause of the headache.

Depending on the diagnosis can be used valproate, gabapentin, muscle relaxants, sedatives, vitamins, venotoniki, diuretics, anti-oxidants, neuroprotective agents, cardiovascular drugs.

treatment can be used for physiotherapy - darsonvalization head and cervical area, electrophoresis, acupuncture, massage, hydrotherapy, sanatorium - resort treatment.I repeat - the treatment prescribed by a doctor individually.It is impossible to choose from the list of medication and treatment.The doctor will explain what means can be used for relief of an attack is strictly in your case, take that as a preventive measure.After all, if the cause of headache, for example, a brain tumor, then pills will not cure, need surgery in the neurosurgical department.Abuse of analgesics as self-medication can cause a number of side effects from the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys.

Medical consultation for headache issues

Question: What is the rebound headache?
answer: it is a headache caused by chronic regular intake of drugs - analgesics - aspirin, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, barbiturates, benzodiazepine drugs, ergotamine.Chronic pills becomes a "lifestyle", analgesic effect is reduced, the number of tablets increases.
rebound headache should worry at least 15 days a month, amplified to remove the drug to pass about a month after discontinuation of the drug.For the treatment requires removal of the drug on an outpatient or inpatient appointment of symptomatic medications to relieve side effects.For prevention it is necessary not to abuse drugs mentioned groups.

Question: how to reduce the headache for colds?
answer: take quickly soluble forms of drugs - koldreks, Fervex, solpadeni, noshpu to deal with, you can rub the temples and forehead fresh lemon compote take hawthorn, multivitamins.

Question: what a headache is particularly dangerous?

Answer:

  • If the headache is accompanied by vomiting, especially in cases where the vomiting does not bring relief
  • If the headache persists after taking antipyretic - analgesics
  • If because of the pain in the neck it is difficult to raise his head withpillows from a prone position
  • in the event of any disturbances of consciousness
  • When the rash.For meningococcal disease characterized by hemorrhagic rash - iesmall hemorrhages in the skin, which have the appearance of dark red spots, not protruding above the skin, do not whiten when pressed.There are usually on the buttocks, legs, stomach, and then can spread throughout the body.

doctor - a neurologist, SV Kobzev