Disturbances of consciousness - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .

August 12, 2017 17:52 | Head

human consciousness - is higher mental processes, which provides cognition and reflection of the objective reality of the world and of man himself and adapt to the world around them.Sudden disorders of consciousness constitute a real threat to life.

Fainting (syncope) - this is a short-term bouts of unconsciousness and impaired postural tone with a disorder of the cardiovascular and respiratory activity, that is in violation of the vital functions.

Syncope is caused by acute metabolic processes and cerebral blood flow, leading to neuronal hypoxia.The man suddenly falls unconscious.Perhaps the presence of short-aura - darkening of the eyes, a feeling of "nausea" weakness.


Many syncope are part of the emotional stress and have a primary neurogenic character.They can be a healthy person in extreme conditions, exceeding the limits of physiological adaptability and portability of unusual conditions of habitat or emergency actions - at the sight of blood, at a reception at the dentist, fas

t rising night, prolonged standing, physical overload, hyperthermia.

significant lack of oxygen in the ambient air (altitude, in a sealed chamber) will cause impaired consciousness.Increased emotional and vascular reactivity determines the nature of the organism's response to stress pathogens.Risk factors for the development of "emotional" syncope are neuroses and neurosis-like states, particularly hysteria, neurasthenia, pain, fear or terror in connection with real events - accidents, catastrophes, natural disasters, crime.Personal-significant content of emotional impact for the person provoke fainting - the death of a loved one, the news of the funeral, divorce, exam failure.

However, syncope may be a manifestation of serious somatic and neurological diseases, life-threatening - a brain tumor, brain aneurysm, heart disease.Neurocirculatory dystonia, cerebral atherosclerosis, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, the pathology of vertebral and carotid arteries can cause syncope.Arrhythmias and heart block, myocarditis, coronary heart disease, hypertension and hypotension can cause fainting.Infections, intoxication (poisoning), household and industrial poisons, allergic reactions, blood disorders, massive blood loss, diabetes, lung diseases can cause impaired consciousness.

Epilepsy - a group of diseases with sudden seizures and loss of consciousness.When epilepsy may develop a variety of attacks with a variety of options for impaired consciousness: clouded state, somnambulism, trance, absence seizures, psychosis, delusions, hallucinations.

epileptic seizures - loss of consciousness and tonic - clonic seizures

Epilepsy can be an independent disease, but can be a symptom of other diseases - brain tumors, stroke, head injury, intoxication (alcohol and drugs).Most often, people suddenly screams, falls, fights in convulsions, curved body, mouth foams, tongue bites, perhaps involuntary urination.After the attack, the patient is drowsy and does not remember anything.

Confusion - characterized by restriction verbal - verbal contact, increasing the threshold of perception of external stimuli - sound, light, pain, decrease their own physical activity.With deep somnolence stupor, disorientation in time and place, you can do only simple instructions.Perhaps a combination of stupefaction with hallucinations, delirium, dilated pupils, tachycardia, tremor, increased blood pressure.The most common cause of such delirium (a mental disorder, flowing with impaired consciousness) is zlouotreblenie alcohol, high body temperature, intoxication by certain drugs (stimulants, antidepressants, sedatives), oncology, severe neural infections (meningitis), head injuries.

Sopor - more severe impairment of consciousness, when stored only defensive reactions, eye opening in response to pain, sound and other stimuli, episodic short-term minimal verbal contact - at the request of the patient the doctor opens his eyes, raises his hand.

Coma - complete shutdown of consciousness.According to the degree of gravity is divided into three levels - mild, deep and prohibitive.Coma may develop diabetes, kidney disease, heart, stroke, traumatic brain injury, poisoning.Diagnosis of the cause of someone and their treatment - the work of professionals - intensive care.Estimated depth of coma on a scale com - Glasgow, which takes into account the visual, speech, motor reactions.The range of scores: 15 - a clear mind, 3 - 4 points - number of degree coma.The problem surrounding just quickly call an ambulance and bring the patient to any disturbance of consciousness in the hospital.

endarkenment consciousness - disintegration, a perversion of mental activity in which the reflection of the world is distorted.When oneiric dizziness the patient removed from real events, experiencing fantastic illusory threatening events.When delirious stupefaction present the true visual hallucinations while maintaining the orientation in itself.When amential stupefaction occurs total violation of all psychic processes.Dizziness - an area of ​​psychiatric research.


importance of seeking medical attention for any violation of consciousness is determined by the severity of the particular manifestations of the disease, the frequency, the danger of further injury during the loss of consciousness, the real risk to others, if the patient during an attack manages the transport, working at height,with an open fire, the driving mechanisms.

survey in violation of consciousness and to what doctor to address

mandatory testing in violation of consciousness (of course, if the patient is not immediately gets in a serious condition in the intensive care unit) will be - neurologist examinations, eye doctor, therapist, holding an electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, computed tomography,Magnetic resonance therapy, biochemical examination.Further tactics depend on the results obtained.A single faint when overheating in the sun or orthostatic night with a sharp rising does not require special treatment.Neuro - circulatory dystonia with syncope requires observation and a course of treatment at the neurologist.When a patient's brain tumor would send in the neurosurgical department.Brain stroke is treated in the neurology department.Myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias require treatment and monitoring by a cardiologist.Epilepsy is treated by a neurologist, and with the presence of personality disorders in psychiatric - epileptologa.

Medical consultation Common theme impaired consciousness

question: how to provide first aid for fainting?
Answer: check for a pulse, movements of the chest, ie breathing, raise the legs to improve blood flow to the head, free from hindering clothing, bring cotton wool with ammonia and to wave under the nose, cold cloth to rub whiskey and palm ensure a flow of freshair.If syncope lasts for more than 2 minutes, call an ambulance.When you restore consciousness to see a doctor for examination and establish the cause of loss of consciousness.
When an epileptic seizure is necessary to keep the patient's head to prevent head - brain injury, as far as possible to flip it on its side to the saliva flowed from his mouth.The attack will take place within 1 - 5 minutes.It is necessary to call an ambulance.

neurologist Kobzev SV