Fainting - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Symptoms similar to Syncope:
• Memory Failure
• Loss of consciousness
Fainting (syncope) - this is a short-term loss of consciousness and fall against the backdrop of the sudden decrease in metabolism in the brain.Most often, such a reduction is due to momentary disturbances of cerebral blood flow and hence oxygen shortage brain.This leads to dizziness or fainting.Temporary deterioration of blood supply to the brain can be caused by heart disease, or other reasons that do not directly touch the heart.
Fainting is always accompanied by lightheadedness - a person feels a sense of faintness, circles before the eyes, heart palpitations, a knock on the temples, sweating, hot flashes, nausea, a feeling of impending fall.If time does not sit down, there is a loss of consciousness and fall.Loss of consciousness is brief (a few seconds), and the person quickly comes to his senses, being in a horizontal position.Occasionally there are intermittent twitching of the limbs, upuskan
reasons leading to a decrease in cerebral blood flow and fainting:
1. Violation of the autonomic nervous system, which leads to improper regulation of vascular contractility - the cause of neurogenic syncope (more than 50% of syncope)
2. Pathology of the heart - the cause of cardiogenic syncope(accounting for 25% of syncope)
3. Vascular disorders (major atherosclerotic deposits in the blood vessels of the head and neck, transient ischemic attack, stroke)
4. The sudden rise in intracranial pressure (tumor, hydrocephalus, hemorrhage)
5. Decreaseoxygen, sugar, electrolytes in the blood (hypoxia, anemia, hypoglycemia, renal and hepatic failure)
6. Reducing the volume of circulating blood (bleeding, excessive urination, diarrhea)
7. poisoning (carbon monoxide, alcohol, etc.)
8. Mental disorders (hyperventilation syndrome, hysterical neurosis)
9. and also emit other forms of loss of consciousness - as a result of epilepsy, head injuries, infections and other
Consider the most common types of syncope:. neurogenic, cardiogenic,hyperventilation.
1. vasodepressor - occurs in young people, in certain situations - for pain, fear, emotional stress, the sight of blood, stuffiness, prolonged standing;vasodepressor syncope is the vast majority of cases, fainting all types
2. Orthostatic - occurs when a sharp rising, taking certain medications (antihypertensives, antidepressants, levodopa)
3. Syncope in case of hypersensitivity of the carotid sinus - occurs in older men with atherosclerosis and hypertensionwhen wearing a tight collar
4. fainting with an increase in intrathoracic pressure - occurs at night urination in older men, coughing, defecation
cardiogenic syncope occur when heart rhythm disturbances, conduction blockade, myocardial infarction.
hyperventilation syncope arise in a fit of anxiety, fear, panic attack (vegetative crisis) as a result of the unconscious more frequent and deeper breathing.
If bradycardia (when the heart rate below 60 beats per minute) can be momentary bouts of unconsciousness (seconds) - "walked-walked - came to himself lying on the floor."Importantly, the frequency difference rate must be rapid and dramatic, 20-30 bpm.Getting bradycardia may be preceded by a feeling of "hot flushes in the head."Such fainting due to a sharp decrease in cerebral blood flow and are typical for different types of arrhythmias.
diseases that can cause syncope
• Aortic stenosis
• Low blood pressure
• Parkinson's disease
• Pulmonary hypertension
Possible causes fainting
- Violation of the autonomic nervous
- system heart Pathology
- sudden increase in intracranial pressure (tumor, hydrocephalus, hemorrhage)
- poisoning (carbon monoxide, alcohol, etc.)
- Mental disorders (hyperventilation syndrome, hysterical neurosis) Epilepsy
- Traumatic brain injury
Syncope most often caused by factors that are not directly touch the heart:
• postural (orthostatic) hypotension: lower blood pressure due to changes in body position to the upright position after lying or sitting;
• Diseases of the nerves in the legs in the elderly (especially those with diabetes or Parkinson's disease)
• High Altitude
• Fainting in certain situations (situational syncope), such as:
Cough, which causes an involuntary reflex of the nervous system (vasovagal reaction), which slows down the heartbeat and dilates blood vessels in the legs, a person feels nausea, sweating, weakness just before fainting.
reasons related to the heart: heart disease, which can cause fainting or loss of consciousness:
• Abnormal heart rhythm (heart beating too fast or too slow).
• Abnormalities of the heart valves (aortic stenosis or stenosis of the pulmonary valve).
• High blood pressure in the arteries supplying the lungs (pulmonary hypertension of the arteries).
• Aortic dissection.
• Widespread disease of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy).
Medications can cause loss of consciousness through changes in blood pressure, or by affecting the heart.
Fainting in children and adolescents vasovagal
Vasovagal syncope in children and adolescents usually develop on the background of stress, fatigue, or hunger, so recommend to avoid these conditions.
The share of vasovagal syncope accounts for about 50% of syncope.They are often found in healthy people and often occur repeatedly.
Vasovagal syncope provoked
- emotion (in this case, they are more likely to develop in a stuffy, crowded room),
- fear (for example, at a reception at the dentist),
- injury or
Often fainting develop for no apparent reason.
Classic vasovagal syncope is accompanied by hypotension, bradycardia, nausea, pallor and profuse sweating.
mechanism of syncope following.In response to a decrease in venous return and decrease in stroke volume increases reflex sympathetic tone.In predisposed to such persons fainting is increased sympathetic tone is excessive, and this leads to a sharp rise in cardiac contractility.From ventricular mechanoreceptors by afferent fibers of group C of the vagus nerves in the medulla oblongata receives intensive impulses, and this is accompanied by a decrease in sympathetic and parasympathetic tone increase.As a result, developing excessive peripheral vasodilation and relative bradycardia, which leads to a drop in blood pressure and fainting.Consciousness is quickly restored in the supine position with legs raised.
Test for orthostatic table (long being at an angle of 60-80 *) can cause syncope in these patients.Isoprenaline at low doses increases the sensitivity of this assay, but can result in false positive results in high doses.
vasovagal syncope sometimes occurs in response to a sharp pain, especially coming from the internal organs.Occasionally he accompanies a migraine attack.
Fainting during urination occurs more often in older men during and after urination, usually after a nap.Perhaps it is a kind of vasovagal syncope.Reducing the pressure in the bladder causes vasodilatation and bradycardia due to an increase in parasympathetic tone.
By the way physicians treat when there Fainting:
- Emergency doctor