Dandruff - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Dandruff - it is the excessive flaking of the scalp cells with occasional itching.The disease is a permanent dermatological scalp conditions.Dandruff affects about 20% of the population.The pathological process is most evident in the area, rich in sebaceous glands: scalp, forehead, nasolabial folds, eyelashes, eyebrows and the outer ear.Dandruff - a seasonal phenomenon, an exacerbation period accounted for the winter.
Normal dandruff head - a pathological process associated with the exfoliation of skin cells, which form a dry white coating.It may be due to reasons not painful nature.
oily dandruff - layered yellowish brown with visible signs of inflammation.Exfoliate is accompanied by increased secretion of sebum.The process is most pronounced in areas rich in sebaceous glands of the scalp, forehead, nasolabial folds, eyelashes, eyebrows and the outer ear.Usually associated with skin diseases.
causes of dandruff
• Poor nutrition.
• Not enough personal hygiene.
• Exposure to environmental pollut
• Lack of sunlight.
• Violation of immunological processes.
• Abnormal sebum composition and dysfunction of the sebaceous glands.
• Hormonal disorders.
• Violation of a normal constituent of the human flora.
• Excessive colonization of the fungus Malassezia SPP.
• Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).
• Allergic reactions.
• Excessive intake of sugar, saturated fat and starch.
• Genetic predisposition.
• Frequent use of gels and varnishes, hair dyes.
• Frequent shampooing.
diseases for which there may be a symptom of dandruff
There are certain conditions and diseases that predispose to the appearance of dandruff:
• Seborrheic dermatitis - extensive inflammatory-exudative skin disease.Its cause is an increase in the secretion of the sebaceous glands.In most cases the process is localized in the scalp, forehead, nose, cheeks, nasolabial folds and, in the region of the sternum and between the shoulder blades.Sebum is a breeding ground for organisms decompose and irritate the skin.Thus, on the body there are numerous erythematous areas covered with heavy, yellow and greasy scales.The spots may merge with each other to grow, to discolor the skin.The disease is chronic and is characterized by the cyclical nature of the period of exacerbation in the winter and in the summer of improvements.
deprives - a collective term that includes the skin of different etiology (origin) of the disease.
- Pityriasis versicolor - a chronic skin mycosis caused by the fungus Malassezia.It is a yellow-brown spotty rash.They are easy to peel off and the skin is discolored.The disease frequently recurs as fungi reside in the skin epidermis.
- White zoster (Alba) of the scalp - a state of severe seborrhea is characterized by chronic and recurrent course.It forms a white, well-defined lesions.These lesions are located on the face and extremities.Most often found in children.
• Psoriasis - chronic non-infectious skin disease characterized dermatosis.
• Neurological disorders (Parkinson's disease, paralysis VII of, syringomyelia) - diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system.
• Psychiatric disorders (depression and the use of psychotropic drugs).
• Alcoholism - physical and psychological dependence on alcohol.
• HIV infection - a disease due to the human immunodeficiency virus infection.
• Cancer - a malignant tumor.
• gastrointestinal disease - disease of the digestive system.
• Chronic respiratory disease.
• Atopic dermatitis - atopic dermatitis, a chronic inflammatory disease of allergic nature.
• Scabies - parasitic skin disease.
For many years it was believed that dandruff can lead to baldness.But now it is proven that alopecia not associated with this disease!
To what doctor to treat dandruff
With any type of dandruff you need to refer to trichologist (a doctor, dealing with problems of hair and scalp), or dermatologist.Self-medication is not always effective.The doctor not only prescribe the right medicine, but also to recommend appropriate skin care and prevention.
symptoms for which you need to immediately contact a doctor
- Severe skin itching, scratching.
- Nervousness, irritability.
- Strange spots, red or Rosavit.
- Skin rash.
dandruff treatment - a long and laborious process, success depends on several factors: age, region of residence, and gravity changes.To obtain a satisfactory therapeutic effect, the patient should follow the doctor's recommendations. The first step is to find the cause and cure of the patient based on the diagnosis. Dandruff can not be completely eliminated, but it is possible to restrain the process of peeling the skin in the normal range.
therapy for topical treatment used shampoos, creams, oils and tonics with keratolytic, antifungal and cytostatic effect.The action of these drugs is aimed at alleviating clinical symptoms (removing scabs and scales, sebum) and reduce inflammation.
• Shampoo: Pantene Pro-V, Selsun Blue, Neutrogena, Nizoral 1% -2% (containing ketoconazole), Head & amp;Shoulders, Gard purple, Pantene Blue.Shampoos based on coal tar containing zinc salts, salicylic acid, selenium sulfide, and sulfur.The medicated shampoos for dandruff may also include extracts: burdock root, radish, kidneys black poplar, juniper, hops, birch leaf, sweet flag, nettles and nasturtium, chamomile, mullein, mallow, rhubarb root, sage, rosemary, fruits ivy, oak bark, linden blossoms, onion, inflorescence marigold, hibiscus flowers, root alkanes.Compositions
• ( "mash") from salicylic acid, resorcinol, tar, selenium sulfide or cadmium, sulfur - reduce inflammation and eliminate itching and burning.The concentration of these substances depends on the individual patient and the severity of the changes.
• dermocosmetics - tonics, lotions (eg, Seboderm).
• The imidazole derivatives (drugs: ketoconazole, flutrimazole, clotrimazole, bifonazole, miconazole, climbazole) - act on the pathogen fungal infection, inhibit the proliferation of the fungus Malassezia SPP.
• A diet rich in vitamins B, A and E. It is necessary to include in the diet nenasyshennye fatty acids.Corticosteroids
• in combination with metronidazole, erythromycin, derivatives of vitamin D3 and calcineurin inhibitors.Represent creams, aerosols, gels.(Eg, ointment Geksizon, Futsikord)
• Phototherapy UF - has antibacterial properties.
• photochemotherapy (PUVA) - the use of long-wavelength ultraviolet light in combination with the photosensitizing agents.
General treatment of dandruff
therapy is indicated in patients with extensive chronic lesions and includes, in general, such oral formulations (applied inside):
• Retinoids (Isotretinoin) - derivatives of vitamin A.
• Antibiotics (gentamicin, neomycin,apramycin, tetracycline) - a substance that inhibits the growth of bacterial cells.
• Corticosteroid hormones (prednisone, hydrocortisone, cortisol) - physiologically active substances that inhibit inflammatory processes.
• Antifungals (terbinafine, ketoconazole, itraconazole) - drugs acting directly on the fungal pathogen.
Phytotherapy and other homemade ways to combat dandruff
• Nettle Lotion - 1 tablespoon of dried nettle leaves pour a glass of water.Let stand for 20 minutes.Infusion of strain, rinse their hair and scalp.
• Peppermint lotion (for dark hair) - three tablespoons of mint (fresh or dried), pour a liter of fruit vinegar and close the bottle.Keep in a warm sunny location (on the windowsill) for two weeks.Then strain through cheesecloth into a bottle.Use after washing hair.
• Lime Lotion (for blonde hair) - boil 4 tablespoons lime spoon 2 cups of water.Liquid rinse hair.
• Lotion from horsetail and burdock - 2 tablespoons dry horsetail, burdock root soapwort and pour a liter of hot water and cook in a water bath for 7 minutes.Dilute liter of water and rinse hair after each wash.
• Lotion from horsetail, calendula and chamomile - 3 tablespoons of chamomile, calendula, horsetail, and willow per liter of water.To prepare a decoction by boiling herbs for 5 minutes.Then drain the water and broth to cool, wash and dry the hair.Use 2-3 times a week.
• Mask "Mediterranean Sea» - nourishes the scalp and hydrates the hair.Take 1 cup of olive oil, 1 egg yolk and fresh juice of one lemon.Mix everything and put a mask on your hair after shampooing, leave for 20 minutes.Then rinse with water and wash bezsulfatnym or baby shampoo.
• Egg mask with rum - recommended for dry hair.Two egg yolk mixed with 2 tablespoons of rum and two teaspoons of olive oil.On the washed and dried hair, apply a mask.Leave on for 30 minutes and wrap head with a towel, then rinse the mask with warm water and wash your hair with a mild shampoo.
• coconut mask with jojoba - dry dandruff.Mix a spoonful of coconut oil and a teaspoon of jojoba oil.A mixture of massage movements rub into the scalp and leave for half an hour, covering his head with a towel.Then wash the hair with regular shampoo, repeat the procedure in a week.
• Lemon juice - freshly washed hair to rinse the lemon juice.The treatment of lemon juice to repeat every day, until complete exfoliation of dandruff.
• Castor oil - wash your hair, dry it with a towel.Rub into the scalp 1 cup butter, wrap head with a towel and wait for half an hour.Rinse the head with water and wash your hair with a mild shampoo.Repeat treatment every 2 weeks.
• Garlic wrap - knead minced garlic two and add a glass of warm boiled water.Mix all together and infuse for 5 minutes.Massage movements to rub the mixture into the scalp, left on the hair for 5 minutes, then rinse thoroughly with water.Wraps do not more often than once a week, because garlic has a strong irritant and frequent contact with the skin can cause redness and irritation.
• Egg mask - separate the egg yolk from the protein.Protein whisk, then add the egg yolk and mix gently.On a clean, lightly-dried hair, apply the mask, carefully massage the skin in it, wrap your head with cling film and leave for 30 minutes.Mask rinse with warm water without shampoo.
• yogurt mask - on washed and slightly damp hair, apply not sweet yogurt, wrap head with a towel and leave for about an hour.After this time, the mask wash off with warm water and wash your hair with a mild shampoo.
Good nutrition and proper skin care - the basis of prevention of dandruff.
Prevention of relapse of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp is an extremely important point, as to prevent the vital activity of Malassezia SPP colony.
- Use shampoos with ketoconazole or ciclopirox once a week for several months.
- In cases of remission is important hygiene and proper care of skin prone to a resumption of the pathological process.
doctor cosmetologist Kondratenko NA