Memory impairment - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
difficult to say what is the norm in relation to memory.It is individual for each person.Upper limit is not defined for the memory.There are descriptions supermemory when one remembers the smallest details, with which he is confronted.
Official sources memory is defined as the ability to receive, store and playback experience.It is not only physiological, but also a cultural process.
known memory division into long-term and short-term.Their relationship with different people differently, too.If you prevail long-term memory, it is likely you have difficulty remembering the material, but it is easy to reproduce through a significant period of time.If, on the contrary, you will quickly "on the fly" memorize, then probably quickly forget.This feature of the short-term memory.RAM can store data up to a certain point.
reasons memory impairment.
For simplicity, we can divide them into groups.
1) directly related to the brain injury.These include such a defeat as a traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke (acut
2) deterioration of brain function due to diseases of other organs and systems.
3) adverse external factors, such as lack of sleep, stress, sudden change in living conditions, the increased load on the brain, including the memory.
4) Chronic intoxication.By the memory impairment is the abuse of alcohol, drugs (especially tranquilizers, sedatives), smoking, drug addiction.
5) Age-related changes in the brain.
person perceives the memory as something self-evident, is not faced with the problem of forgetfulness.Types of memory problems are many and many factors influence this process.
memory associated with different modalities.There are visual, auditory, motor modalities.Their combination and the prevalence individually.Someone is easier to remember, if the material will speak out loud.Another easier to remember, it looks like a page on which is written the right information, or imagine a filing drawers, where he allegedly put the file.Third easy to remember information using logic or association.Fourth write an outline.
Different areas of the brain are associated with different functions that contribute to memory.For example, temporal divisions are responsible for the perception of hearing and speech.Occipital-parietal region create visual and spatial perception, and the right hemisphere departments provide color, optical spatial and facial perception, and the left hemisphere - literal and substantive.Nizhnetemennoy region responsible for the actions of the hands and vocal apparatus.With their defeat of a person can not learn things by touch (astereognosis).
Lately there are more and more reliable information on the impact of hormones on the processes of thinking and memory.Marked positive effect of vasopressin, testosterone, estrogen, prolactin to accelerate learning, attention, stimulation, transfer of information from short-term memory to long-term.Oxytocin also has the opposite effect.
diseases, leading to memory impairment
Consider the diseases for which most often observed memory problems.In the first place, as the most frequent, it is traumatic brain injury.When they are almost always there are complaints of memory impairment, and the larger, more serious injury.For TBI is also characterized by the phenomenon of retrograde and anterograde amnesia.In this case the person does not remember not only the time of the injury, but also the events preceding and following it.Sometimes on this background there confabulation and hallucinations.Confabulation - a false memory, produced by the man.For example, a question about what he did yesterday, to tell the patient that went to the theater, walking in the park and eating ice cream.In fact, he did not leave the Chamber, as a long time sick.Hallucinations - a pathological images, which was not and could not be.
quite common cause of memory loss - a violation of cerebral circulation.Atherosclerosis cerebrovascular causes a decrease in blood flow to all parts of the brain.In addition, it is a provoking factor in the development of acute cerebrovascular accidents.cerebral stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic), developing in a particular area of the brain, interrupting blood access it almost completely.This violates the function of these zones.
similar symptoms can be observed in diabetes.One of the serious complications it is angiopathy (vascular disease), in which the marked thickening of the vessel walls and the closure of small vessels.This leads to disruption of blood flow of all organs, including the brain.
Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) and encephalitis (inflammation of the brain substance) affects the operation of the entire body as a whole.The most common reason they are neurotropic (affecting the nervous system), bacteria and viruses.Fortunately, these diseases are well treated with timely treatment to the doctor.
What can be said about the degenerative diseases of the brain, the most famous of which is Alzheimer's disease.It is characterized by gradual and steady decline in memory and intelligence up to the loss of orientation in the environment and the inability to self-service.This disease is most commonly seen in patients aged 70-80 years.It begins slowly and quietly.And the first sign of how time is loss of memory and attention.Man easily forgets recent events, often replacing their memories of the past.The character of a person, it becomes demanding, apathetic, selfish.Later, in the absence of treatment, the patient loses completely orientation in space and time, can not be called today's date, lost in a familiar place, consider themselves young children do not understand where they are, do not recognize loved ones.It is believed that there is a genetic predisposition to Alzheimer's disease.The disease is incurable, but when initiated early in the treatment, it is possible to achieve long-term flow of light without deterioration.
Memory impairment can be the first sign of thyroid diseases associated with a lack of production of its hormones (hypothyroidism).The last 65% consist of iodine.Reducing the memory in this case, combined with an increase in body weight, the appearance of depression, apathy, edema, muscle weakness, irritability.For the prevention of iodine deficiency in the first place should adjust diet, adding to products like iodized salt and milk (the latter is preferable), sea kale and sea fish, persimmons, cheese and nuts.
Not all memory loss can be correlated with local brain lesions.Sometimes a person unconsciously tries to forget the anxious thoughts, unpleasant events, hurtful words.This protection mechanisms.They are quite a lot.
repression - a repression of the memory of an unpleasant fact.Denial - a person believes that "there was no" events.Substitution - when a person takes out his unpleasant emotions to the "safe" facility.For example, when the failures at work, at home my husband yells at his wife.And if the person is constantly uses only one of these mechanisms, it can be seen how the surrounding them and memory problems.
Moreover, those negative emotions that are "pushed out" or "forgotten" have a negative impact on the body, resulting in the nervosa, unmotivated aggression, etc.
memory impairment Treatment
memory impairment Treatment depends, naturally, on the reasons that caused it.Perhaps the use of drugs, but none of them can be assigned their own without medical supervision.
Perhaps the use of physiotherapy techniques such as electrophoresis with intranasal (chereznosovym) the introduction of glutamic acid preparations.
Psycho-pedagogical correction and has been successfully used to help patients with memory impairment.With the help of the teacher patient learns to memorize using other functions of the brain instead of the diseased.For example, if a person can not remember the words spoken aloud, is presenting a visual image, meaning the same word memorization possible.This is a difficult, long, painstaking work.Not only must learn to memorize by other connections in the brain, but also to bring the process to automatic.
This symptom is dangerous only as a poor prognostic sign, indicating the progression of other diseases.In addition, it violates the social adaptation of the patient, it impairs their quality of life.
When violations Memory experts often recommend acceptance neuroprotective drugs.
To what doctor to address the deterioration of memory
If you think you have memory problems, you should consult a neurologist, neuropsychologist or physician who will conduct an additional examination.
But something you can do yourself and start right now.
it is known that often when a patient complains of memory impairment, is in fact the main reason - in violation of attention.It is very common for the elderly.Events and Information underestimated perceived fleetingly, especially if the situation is familiar to man.And this state of affairs is rather difficult to reverse.The only way out - a constant work, attention and memory training: fix important data on paper, journal, and possess an oral account to perfection.Such
the brain training method is well described in the book American professor Lawrence Katz.These exercises activate the brain, contribute to the creation of new connections and associations, involve different parts of the brain.
Here are some of these exercises:
- Try to carry out the usual steps with your eyes closed.
- If you are right handed, try to do something with his left hand (for left - right): comb, writing, brush your teeth, put on a wristwatch on the other hand.
- Learn basic Braille (reading and writing system for the blind) or sign language, at least the basics.
- Learn to type on the keyboard with all ten fingers.
- Master a new kind of needlework.
- Learn to distinguish between coins of different denominations by touch.
- Read articles about what had never been interested.
- try to visit new places, meet new people.
- Try to speak in tongues.
And remember, that's how long you'll be "of sound mind and memory," depends largely on you.
Moskvina Anna M., therapist