Runny nose , nasal congestion - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Runny nose and nasal congestion seem to us natural state or once a year.But this banal rhinitis gives us a lot of inconvenience: headache, persistent scarves, red nose and oblique views of others - this is only a small part of it.
Where did come from "snot"?What is popularly known as the common cold, is the medical name for "Rhinitis" and is an inflammatory reaction of the nasal mucosa to the action of pathogenic agents.Most often provoke rhinitis virus.
Possible causes of the common cold:
• Cold weather and swings
temperature • Consumption
spicy food • Enlarged adenoids
• Environmental irritants
• Exposure to tobacco smoke
• Foreign bodies in the nose
• Hormonal changes
• Structural abnormalities (eg, deviationseptum, nasal trauma)
• Kartagener syndrome • Allergy
• nasal polyps
• Respiratory syncytial virus
• tumors of the nasal passages
• Vasomotor rhinitis
• Viral infections
Diseases accompanied by a runny nose
Distinguish acute and chronic rhinitis.Acute rhin
When ARI runny nose, usually overcomes three stages:
- first stage reflector.In response to hypothermia reduced local immunity and the reaction vessel, which is rich in the nasal cavity, explains the clinical manifestations of rhinitis.This first dry mucosa (itching and sneezing) due to spasm and then swelling of the expansion (nasal congestion and difficulty breathing).
- second stage of the common cold - Bluetongue.It is caused by the action of the virus.Due to the inflammatory response of the blood vessels of the nasal cavity propotevaet fluid and blood flow contributes to the revitalization of the glands that produce mucus.At this time there are abundant watery discharge from the nose, reduced sense of smell.Typically, the duration of this stage of the common cold 2-3 days.
Also during this time may appear symptoms of organ damage related to the nasal cavity: stuffy ears (because of the reaction of the mucosa of the auditory tube), watery eyes (due to edema fluid outlet lacrimal system and defeat the virus of the conjunctiva), nasal voice.
- During the third stage, the common cold is marked improvement in reducing swelling of nasal mucosa, olfactory and restore breathing.But nasal discharge become more dense in nature and are yellow-green color.This is due to the addition of a secondary bacterial infection.
Chronic rhinitis can develop into acute at the wrong end of his treatment in occupational diseases, disorders of blood circulation of the nasal cavity and allergic diseases.
Without going into the intricacies of the classification, will talk about the most commonly diagnosed types of chronic rhinitis.
Chronic hypertrophic rhinitis - inflammation of the nasal mucosa and increase with the growth in the volume of the mucosa and submucosa, and occasionally bone.The causes of this condition are frequently repeated acute rhinitis, as well as uncontrolled and prolonged use at a cold vasoconstrictor drops.
This patient usually complains of persistent nasal discharge, nasal obstruction and nasal breathing, headaches, nasal voice.It is also noted persistent violation of the olfactory (sense of smell) and, as a consequence, the sense of taste.
patient is forced to breathe through the mouth constantly.This leads to excessive drying of the mucous membrane of the mouth that appears thirst.
Chronic atrophic rhinitis , on the contrary, as thinning of the mucosa of the nasal passages and leads to the feeling of dryness in the nose, tightness and foreign body.Discharge from the nose small, but very thick, drying soil in the crust, which may contribute to the development of bacterial infection hidden beneath them.This condition can develop in the outcome of a long-term inflammation or occupational exposures and prognostically unfavorable.
Allergic rhinitis also refers to chronic forms of rhinitis.Depending on the cause and severity of allergies can distinguish seasonal and permanent form.
have allergy-prone patient after contact with the substance to which sensitivity is increased, there is sneezing, profuse nasal discharge, difficulty in nasal breathing due to congestion.In the absence of contact with the allergen the patient feels completely healthy.As the substance to which the body responds by increased activity of protective factors (including runny nose) can be anything: pollen, house dust, animal dander, food, medicine.
Allergic rhinitis may be a predisposing factor or the first manifestation of other allergic diseases of the body, most commonly allergic asthma.
Occupational exposures are often the cause of chronic rhinitis.It can be a manifestation of allergic reaction in contact with certain substances, or the answer to the irritating it.The risk for occupational diseases of the nasal cavity are workers of enterprises of wood, which is used formaldehyde and may be present in the inhaled air suspension wood particles.During the construction and repair works have a harmful effect paints, varnishes, adhesives, cement.Breeders are constantly in contact with the particles of the epidermis and hair their pets.Doctors are surrounded by a large number of medicines, protection and disinfection.To reduce the influence of occupational factors on the body is required to use personal protective equipment.
Chronic vasomotor rhinitis occurs when abnormal reaction of the nasal cavity vessels to changing internal factors in the body.This may be a change in hormone levels (usually genital or thyroid) in diseases, pregnancy, puberty.Expansion Rack or vasospasm during cold operation, medication and even stress causes difficulty in breathing, sneezing and nasal discharge appearance.
addition to the above, the common cold may be associated with cystic fibrosis, sinus infection, Wegener's granulomatosis, whooping cough.
survey at a cold
rhinitis diagnosis does not usually cause complications, patient and examination of the nasal cavity is sufficient survey.Only in chronic rhinitis to determine the reaction of the vascular wall is carried out with a sample of vasoconstrictor agents and, if necessary, an allergy test under the supervision of a specialist.
itself runny nose is not dangerous.But if not properly treated or inattentive to himself against the infection can spread beyond the nasal cavity and complications occur.First of all, it's sinusitis (inflammation of the paranasal sinuses: sinusitis, sinusitis, ethmoiditis), nasopharynx diseases (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis) and acute otitis media.
usually skeptics say that we treat runny week and recovering without treatment within 7 days.But why delete the week, if you can help yourself out of your life.The main thing to do it right.
acute rhinitis treatment should be initiated as early as possible.When ARI appointed home mode: and the patient recovers faster and colleagues do not get sick.
Drug-free treatment begins with a cold heat treatments: hot foot bath, hot herbal tea.In the absence of allergies spend with aromatherapy oils of tea tree, eucalyptus, mint and lemon.
should also be said about the hygiene of the nasal cavity in such a difficult period.To prevent the entry of infection in a cavity sinuses and middle ear cavity to release the nose of mucus should be correct.
Firstly, most quiet and not much.Secondly, once liberated for only one nostril (clamped in the second time).Third, during blowing the nose should be slightly opened mouth.This avoids pressure drop.And fourth, throughout the disease for hygiene procedures should be used only disposable handkerchiefs to avoid repeated self-infection.
Drug treatment is given depending on the stage of the disease.Vasoconstrictive drops are effective and should be used only during the first and beginning of the second stage of the common cold - when the "snot" yet, or they are not abundant.Thus, this period is not more than 5 days.During this time, the vessels do not have time to "get used" to drop the action.
During the second stage of a cold the organism tries to "wash" the pathological viruses from the nose: there are copious.During this step, the common cold nasal lavage can be performed as saline, and non-alcoholic infusions herbs (chamomile, marigold).Vasoconstrictive drop at this stage are ineffective.
In the third stage of accession of the bacterial infection is logical to use products with antibacterial effect of local action.
Allergy (antihistamine) medication prescribed for allergic rhinitis by a doctor.
On the practical side is to add a few words:
- use of drugs in the form of a spray, rather than drops, is justified in terms of efficiency and economy.Drops for the most part do not remain in the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx drain, providing a small, but the overall effect on the body.
- sale a lot of products based on sea salt.As mentioned above, their use is justified for the second stage of the disease.Their main function - hydration and flushing mucous secretions.If you do not have enough money, you can purchase at the pharmacy normal saline for injection (ampoules or large bottle).Its effect is not worse.
- Preparations based on colloidal silver has long been proven.Protargol made in the pharmacy with a prescription, because the shelf life after opening it - all day.
- antibiotic in the form of spray to be specifically for use in the nasal cavity.
To which the doctor ask for a cold
Of course, we do not run to the doctor every runny nose.But if over 10 days did not improve, there were pains in the ear, under the eye sockets, over the bridge or in the throat, there are headaches, deteriorating overall health - do not delay a visit to a specialist.Run for the voucher at the reception to the district physician, GP or ENT doctor.
In a situation where a runny nose is distinctly seasonal or obviously provoked by being in the same room with flowers, pets, should seek the help of an allergist.
Chronic rhinitis requires an individual approach.Who ENT physicians are armed with the newest features of microsurgery, which are applied with the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment.Remember that even a runny nose at times require specialist attention.