Snot - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Quite often, children and adults have to deal with this unpleasant problem, as the common cold, or, in common parlance, a snot.
Runny nose (rhinitis) - this increased allocation of serous fluid mucous membranes of the nasal passages caused by the influence of her infectious, allergic or toxic agents.Because the nasal mucosa abundantly supplied with blood vessels, pathogens causing increased permeability of the capillary walls, and the liquid portion of the blood in the nasal cavity propotevaet, flowing out or draining the posterior pharyngeal wall.Also, the introduction of viruses and mucous cells of bacteria begin to produce transparent or viscous secret enriched antibodies to neutralize the microorganisms.
Thus, snot - is nothing but as a defensive reaction to the impact of unfavorable factors.
Consistency, transparency and color discharge from the nose can be said about the nature of inflammation (viral or bacterial), whether the paranasal sinuses are involved in the disease process and the need o
Normally, the nose constantly negligible amount of mucus to moisten inhaled air and purifying it of harmful impurities.If a person has an increased amount of discharge from the nose, and the more it becomes a thick character and changes color, it indicates any disease.
Among the causes of clear liquid snot, there are the following factors:
- acute respiratory viral infection.Many viruses have a tropism to the cells of the nasal mucosa, causing mucus-rich protective antibodies.Liquid transparent snot appeared at the beginning of the viral infection, lasts about three - five days, and then disappear, or, more frequently, moving into a phase of bacterial inflammation, characterized by thick discharge.Transparent snot accompanied by symptoms such as fever, sneezing, nasal congestion, headache, watery eyes and stuffy ears.
- physiological neonatal rhinitis - nasal mucus transparent products which do not flow out and runs down the back of the throat.Such a condition does not require treatment and resolve spontaneously as the adaptation of the respiratory system of the child to the environment.But to establish the cause of the common cold in the newborn baby should only be a pediatrician.
- exposure to allergens - animal dander, pollen, feather pillows, dust, food, medicines, etc.,
- vasomotor rhinitis - a violation of the nervous regulation of the vascular wall, thereby increasing the permeability of capillaries,
- drug-induced rhinitis, caused by exposure to vasoconstrictorswith their long-term use,
- traumatic damage to the nasal mucosa - adverse effects of thermal factors (hypothermia, overheating), mechanical damage.Sometimes
current transparent snot might be not really snot and cerebro - spinal fluid.This symptom is called nasal liquorrhea (literally, the expiry of the liquor from the nose), and occurs in complex head - brain injuries with damage ethmoid bone and meninges.If the patient has an indication of the head - brain injury, after which began the selection of clear fluid from the nose, you should consult a doctor to clarify the nature of nasal discharge.Normal nasal secretion and liquor vary in their content of glucose and protein.
How to treat liquid snot?
Treatment liquid snot virus infection is not much different from the treatment of the common cold, accompanied by a thick discharge.In both cases, the critical temperature in the room, ventilation and air frequent hydration.An exception is the fact that when the nozzle transparent, until the "green", and therefore, the bacterial flora in the application there is no need for local and systemic antibiotics, when a physician is not considered different.
- frequent airing of the room and humidify the air using special moisturizers.Breathing moist humidified oxygen cleanses the nasal passages and facilitates their permeability.
- Frequent washing of the nose physical solution or preparations based on sea water.
against the common cold and for the prevention of upper respiratory tract diseases, and complications applied nasal lavage.However, most solutions for the treatment of rhinitis in the form of finished nose sprays imply irrigation procedure, rather than directly lavage.Unlike Irrigation washing may reduce a thick consistency nasal secretions, but does not solve the problem with their removal along with harmful bacteria.After irrigation mucous dries quickly, which further aggravates the cold, provokes edema.
Washing helps to reduce the inflammation of the nasal mucosa improve performance and reduce the risk of sinusitis and sinusitis.Modern technique involves rinsing the nasal passages with special antiseptic.For example, the components of the preparation "Dolphin" get to the sinuses, diluting mucus clots and naturally taking them out.Children are washing helps in adenoids - inflammation in the pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids).
- inhalation using a nebulizer or inhaler.Perhaps inhalation of special solutions for a nebulizer, or decoctions prepared independently (a decoction of chamomile, peppermint, sage, etc.).Any use of herbs should first discuss with your doctor in order to avoid unwanted allergic reactions to grass.Failing inhalation with decoctions of herbs encouraged physical vapor inhalation.solution in 1: 1 ratio with an alkaline mineral water (Essentuki №4 and №17).Important!- Use only broths, in any case can not be used alcohol tincture or oil, as this will lead to the defeat of the trachea and bronchi, and is fraught with the development of "oil" of pneumonia, which is very difficult to treat.
- Use vasoconstrictor drugs - xylene, tizin, Nazol, Rinzai, and many others.Children may use these drops and sprays, and as the baby Nazol vibrotsil (the latter is a part of an antihistamine, which has a pronounced anti-edema effect).Using drugs can be no more than five days, since it is possible addictive.Drops on the basis nafazolina (naftizina) should be used with great caution, since children this substance can cause an overdose, even with a small excess of the prescribed dose, and lead to the inhibition of cardiac and central nervous system.
- Phytomedication - pinosol, ekvasept are mostly part of the plant, have an antibacterial effect and stimulate the local immunity.
- Immunomodulatory drugs of local action - IRS - 19 spray in the nose, bronhomunal capsules for oral administration.It has an effect similar to the effect of the vaccine - available as part of a mixture of bacterial lysates, that his presence on the mucous membrane irritate it and stimulate an immune response that protects the mucous membrane in the subsequent implementation of these types of microorganisms.admission course for at least two weeks.
Appointed burying interferon solution diluted ordinary boiled water, a few drops in the nose, to provide antiviral protection.When inhaled in the physical mixture.solution and the alkaline water is also added to the ampoule half interferon.
In the treatment of allergic rhinitis plays a special role intake of antihistamines on prescription.Often, getting rid of allergic rhinitis is enough to identify the allergen with a blood test, and remove it from the patient's environment.
Treatment of vasomotor rhinitis is to strengthen the autonomic nervous system with the help of physical therapy, contrast showers, hardening and other procedures, as well as to timely diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestive system.
Thick transparent snot appear at the initial stage of acute viral infection or bacterial diseases of the nasopharynx, and after a couple of days their color becomes yellow - green hue.Frequent episodes of this type occur in rhinitis allergic reactions of persons at a constant inhalation of dry air or due to polyp nasal mucosa.Children are also often expiry thick transparent snot shows overgrown and inflamed adenoids.Discharge from the nose in the form of a thick clear mucus possible if the wrong treatment of rhinitis and running, which lasts more than 10 days.In infants thick mucus dangerous because it not only makes it difficult nasal breathing, but also affects the general condition of the child, preventing him from fully eat and sleep.Such a state of a small child may occur if during his illness he breathes dry and de-moisturized air in a stuffy room.
Thick green snot occur, as a rule, in the final phase of the viral rhinitis due to the fact that due to the weakening of local immunity created favorable conditions for the life of bacteria in the nasal passages.In fact, after the virus has been destroyed, mucosal start living pathogenic bacteria, the body responds to that output a large number of blood cells white blood - leukocytes.Thick green snot, especially common in children - a slime, consisting of salt, protein, inactivated bacteria and white blood cells.Experienced mothers, for example, know that as soon as the child transparent snot replaced by the green - then there was a bacterial inflammation.This type of rhinitis can last for about 10 days, sometimes longer, and become chronic without competent treatment.
Sometimes snot with greens may occur immediately after exposure to cold, as well as allergic reactions to animal fur, flowering grasses and other allergens.
Thick yellow snot can also indicate a bacterial inflammation acceded after the virus.Also, they typically appear in the acute stage of sinusitis.It is an inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, accompanied by fever, severe headache and nasal congestion.Especially painful headache and heaviness about nose enhanced by tilting the head forward.In chronic sinus snot acquire the character of a yellow - green and appear in periods of exacerbation.To clarify the diagnosis should consult a doctor to perform X-rays of the sinuses and the confirmation of the diagnosis start antibacterial treatment.
Often yellow snot along with viscous sputum yellow - green colors appear in smokers, the color in this case due to the color of tar from the tobacco smoke that are deposited on the mucous membrane of the nose and bronchi.
Sometimes thick mucus can not leak out, and runs down the back of the throat.Patients describe this state like the snot in my throat.This can lead to wrong cured rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis or sinus infection, prolonged use of vasoconstrictor drugs, problems with the digestive tract, namely gastric throw down the esophagus into the throat, and the aggressive gastric environment irritate the oropharynx.This condition is called laryngopharyngeal reflux.In infants due to anatomical features dripping snot on the back of the throat is very common.
How to treat a thick snot?
doctor with this type of rhinitis, in addition to the recommendations for the current liquid snot can assign the following treatment:
- thinning medication thick nasal mucus and facilitating its removal from the nose - Rinofluimutsil, ksimelin extra.
- The use of antibacterial drugs.These droplets are Protargolum based on silver salts, and antibiotics in the form of a spray - izofra, Polydex, bioparoks.Sometimes doctors prescribe eye drops for use in nasal passages - Sofradeks, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol.By this resort it is very rare, as the first four of the drug is well and quickly cope with bacterial inflammation in the nasopharynx.
most important drugs in the treatment of thick white, yellow and green mucus are topical antibiotics, but sometimes, in the absence of positive dynamics in the treatment, your doctor may prescribe and systemic antibiotics for oral administration, such as augmentin, amoxiclav, Summamed, Azitroks and others.
often at a cold, especially when blowing the nose mucus is difficult, there are streaks of blood in the discharge from the nose.Usually, this is not a hazardous symptom, unlike nasal bleeding, where a large amount of blood is released from the nasal passages.Bloody veins can occur in these states:
- frequently blowing the nose at a cold with thick snot,
- «drying up" the nasal mucosa when too dry air in the room,
- sinusitis or sinusitis,
- flu with the defeat of the small blood vessels in theincluding the nasal mucosa,
- deficiency of vitamin C, which is easily compensated by taking ascorbic acid or Ascorutinum for several days.
In order to strengthen the walls of capillaries and prevent injury to the nasal mucosa, it should be when the viral infection to take vitamin C in prophylactic dose if there are no contraindications.You also need to comply with temperature control, preventing dryness of the nasal mucosa, and vysmarkivatsya only after instillation into the nose of a few drops of saline or salt water to moisten the mucous thinners and thick discharge from the nose.
When you need to see a doctor?
Try to cope with rhinitis alone, at home, it is possible if the mucus dripping from his nose, has the character of transparent mucus and delivers expressed discomfort to the patient.To the doctor should contact if:
- runny nose from the first day followed by purulent, green or yellow snot,
- runny nose persists for ten days or more,
- for a long time, accompanied by fever, severe headache, dizziness,
- nasal congestion combined with pain and "Shooting" in the ears,
- the patient has an allergic reaction, to eliminate that need to carry out a survey and assign treatment with antihistamines,
- expiration of clear mucus from the nose started after the head - brain injury,
- purulent mucus from the nose, accompanied by a strong cough with purulent sputum.
should contact Which doctor?
In the case of the common cold in children, accompanied by increased body temperature, you need to call the pediatrician at the house or stay in the clinic.At very high body temperature (39 ° C or higher) in infants is necessary to cause a brigade ambulance or go to the emergency department at Children's Hospital.Persons adulthood is necessary to consult an ENT - doctor.In turn, ENT - doctor can prescribe consultation allergist if you suspect an allergic nature of the disease.
therapists Sazykina OJ