Abdominal distension ( flatulence ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Bloating (synonyms: flatulence, bloating, tympany) - a condition in which the gastrointestinal tract occurs excessive flatulence, which may be a consequence of increased education or their lack of elimination from the body.
a healthy person in the gastro-intestinal tract contains a certain amount of gas, the nature and amount of which depends on the age, lifestyle, food.Normally, a person more gas accumulates in the stomach and colon (preferably in the right and left bending).They contain considerably less in the small intestine and the sigmoid colon.
Causes bloating or flatulence
There are several ways of formation of gases in the body:
- aerophagia - swallowing of air, mostly during the consumption of food, beverages;
- gassing during digestion by neutralizing bicarbonates gastric and pancreatic juices;
- a small amount of intestinal gas is supplied from the blood;
- gas formation due vital intestinal microflora (by cleavage of various nutrients (proteins, sugars) released methane, hydrogen,
increased gas formation in the absence of pathology can be observed in the following cases:
1. Ingestion of large portions of the air in the process of eating, the use of highly carbonated beverages, fast food consumption ( "on the run") - all this leads to an excessive flow of gas from the food to the stomach, impaired secretion of gastric and pancreatic juices needed for digestion.The food is not broken down to the proteins, fats, carbohydrates, produced large slag, they are subjected to fermentation and putrefaction in the intestines instead of digested, leading to generation of an excessive amount of gas and flow weighting flatulence.
2. Excessive intake of food that causes gas formation (beans, cabbage, apples).
3. Eating foods enhancing fermentation processes (black bread, kvass, beer, kombucha).
4. People with lactose intolerance - the use of dairy products.
5. Flatulence in pregnancy due to compression of the intestine of the pregnant uterus: is slowing down the movement of the masses of food and nutrient absorption processes.
Diseases accompanied by bloating
In diseases of the gastrointestinal bloating often associated with other symptoms: nausea, unpleasant taste in the mouth, diarrhea or constipation, appetite disorder, belching, abdominal pain without clear localization.
There are several causes of flatulence associated with pathological conditions of the digestive system:
1. Violation of the enzymatic digestion process failure, malabsorption, pathology formation and release of bile acids.A large proportion of food enters the intestine undigested, wherein intestinal microflora is cleaved to generate a large amount of gases.
2. Mechanical flatulence - in the presence of a mechanical obstacle in the gastrointestinal tract (stenosis, adhesions, tumors).
3. Dynamic flatulence occurs in violation of the motor function of the gastrointestinal tract (peritonitis, severe infection and intoxication, violation of the mesentery).
4. Inflammatory bowel disease, or digestive system (pancreatitis, colitis, Crohn's disease, etc.).
5. Noninflammatory bowel disease or digestive tract (dysbiosis, intolerance of nutrients (eg, lactulose and maltose, etc.), which are often found in childhood (flatulence in newborns and infants).);
6. Circulatory bloating can be associated with general or local blood circulation (blood stasis in the intestinal veins reduces the absorption of gas from the intestine into the blood and increase their flow of blood to the intestine, which occurs, for example, cirrhosis of the liver).Psychogenic
7. (hysteria, frequent stress situations) overexcitation nervous system may be associated with intestinal smooth muscle spasm, thus slowing down leads to peristalsis.Accumulates gases pererastyagivayut intestine and cause pain.
In various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract flatulence combined with various symptoms of these diseases.When cirrhosis of any etiology, except jaundice of varying intensity, patients complain of a feeling of heaviness or pain in the right upper quadrant, nausea, bitter taste in the mouth, belching, bloating, general weakness, decreased performance.
Chronic cholecystitis (without stones and calculous) is accompanied by flatulence and belching.In violation of the diet there are complaints about the dull aching pain or heaviness, discomfort in the right upper quadrant, epigastric region, sometimes under the right shoulder blade, nausea, bloating.
Flatulence is almost constant symptom of chronic bowel disease.Chronic enteritis accompanied by bloating, feeling its fullness, pain in the umbilical region, which subside with the advent of loud rumbling.Chair - 6 times a day, a rich, light yellow color, without any admixture of blood, mucus or pus.
Crohn's disease (terminal ileitis) in addition pronounced flatulence is characterized by chronic pain in various areas of the abdomen, diarrhea with discharge of semi-liquid stool with a small admixture of blood and mucus, bloating and rumbling in the abdomen, as well as weight loss.
Flatulence is often in the intestinal dysbiosis - patients complained of loss of appetite, bad taste and bad breath, nausea, bloating, diarrhea, lethargy, malaise.Often the phenomenon of flatulence may occur with severe symptoms from other organs and systems in this matter as the high standing of the diaphragm, and psychogenic factors.
Diagnosing the cause of bloating.
When spasm colon violated carminative and comes to the fore a significant increase in the abdomen, which is due to bloating.Patients complain of discomfort, abdominal distension, pain.Another manifestation of the disease may become a permanent rapid discharge of gas from the intestine, which greatly impairs the quality of life of the patient.This pain syndrome is weak or absent, dominated by complaints of "rumbling" distension and "transfusion" in the stomach.Extraintestinal symptoms may appear.For example, on the part of the cardiovascular system - heart rhythm disturbances, burning in the heart, depressed mood, sleep disturbance, fatigue, muscle aches.
When examining a patient pay attention to:
• complaints that may indicate not only on himself flatulence, but also on the diseases caused by it: diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome;abdominal pain, fever, joint pain, loss of appetite with Whipple's disease;reduction of body weight, blood and mucus in the stools, and Crohn's disease, etc .;
• Inspection - bloating, abdominal palpation pain in the umbilical region, tympanic percussion sound, auscultation (listening), - strengthening, weakening or absence of bowel sounds.
• CBC - signs of iron deficiency anemia (decreased hemoglobin level, red blood cells), Moderate leukocytosis are characteristic of inflammatory diseases of the digestive system;
• Urinalysis - without pathological changes;
• total protein and protein fractions - hypoalbuminemia (Whipple's disease, ulcerative colitis, and others.);
• Blood sugar - within the normal range;
• coprogram - polifekaliya, admixture of blood and mucus;
• fecal elastase-1 - to avoid pancreatic diarrhea;
• biochemical indicators of pancreatic function: the enzyme alpha-amylase, a lipase enzyme;
• repeated stool crops to pathogens and research ova (to exclude infectious or parasitic nature);
• Blood electrolytes - electrolyte imbalance.
However, the main method of examination is plain radiography of abdominal organs (bowel pneumatosis, bowls Kloybera with intestinal obstruction, etc.).
Treatment of bloating
Treatment bloating should take account of the cause.
Flatulence caused by swallowing a large quantity of air, requires correction cultural meal, non-chewing gum, carbonated beverages.
Frequent eating foods that cause excess flatulence (beans, cabbage, apples) or enhancing fermentation processes (black bread, kvass, beer, kombucha) should adjust the diet, reducing the number of products in it.
products that are not recommended for use with bloating : coffee, chocolate, milk, oil, tea, very cold food, too hot food, honey, seeds, nuts, yeast, oats, cabbage, scrambled eggs with cheese, beans,chewing gum, candy, meat (grilled), sodas, apples, raisins, smoothies, cereals, onions (and onion, and green), radish.
If flatulence develops as a consequence of chronic pancreatitis (diagnosis is established as a result of the survey), specifically because of the lack of pancreatic enzymes in the treatment include medications containing such enzymes (Mezim forte, Creon Pancreatin, Smecta and so forth.).
Treatment bloating occurred on the background of intestinal dysbiosis, peptic ulcer, gastritis, enterocolitis, is to treat the disease causing flatulence.
flatulence caused by mechanical causes (tumor, stenosis, etc.) Required surgical treatment.
Drug therapy is aimed at:
1. treatment of the underlying disease that caused bloating;
2. restore normal intestinal microflora;
3. Remove accumulated gases from the intestinal lumen: prokinetics, adsorbents (activated carbon, bismuth preparations), defoamers (Espumizan, semitikon).
to treat flatulence can also try folk remedies.
If simultaneously with increased flatulence observed tachycardia, you can use tea made from peppermint.Drink it recommended during the day, to complete feel better.
When colic spasms and flatulence: a pinch of chamomile pour 3 cups boiling water, leave for 30-40 minutes, then strain;Take half a cup of infusion for a day to complete disappearance of symptoms.
In the absence of appetite and a large gathering of gas in the intestines is very good dried ginger (pound to a powder, and take on the tip of a teaspoon 2-4 times a day 15 minutes after the meal with 1/3 glass of water).
For infants flatulence useful dill water.To prepare the fennel tea is necessary one tablespoon of finely chopped greens fill a half cups of boiling water.It must be chilled to drink during the day, after a meal.
Flatulence, constipation and chronic colitis can also be treated spinach.This is especially useful for children and the elderly.
In addition, you can use an ordinary seeds of cumin.For children: 1 teaspoon of seeds pour 1 cup boiling water.Boil no more than 1-2 minutes, then insist 30 minutes and filtered before use.Take necessary with a small amount of honey 1/4 cup 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes before meals.For adults: 1 tablespoon caraway seeds pour 1 cup boiling water.
In all cases, prolonged or recurrent flatulence should contact your doctor to undergo the necessary examinations to identify illnesses caused by flatulence.
Despite the availability of national resources, their use may not always be safe and effective.Folk remedies can cause allergic reactions and do not address the root cause of the constant bloating - dysbiosis.Fight with dysbiosis should comprehensively.Removing products from the intestinal disintegration must be combined with the use of rich lacto-and bifidobacteria or components that contribute to its growth.For example, at a dysbacteriosis makes use of a double-acting drug - liquid coal.On the one hand sorbent pectin cleanses the digestive system of toxins, eliminating harmful substances.On the other hand prebiotic inulin creates in the inner surface of the intestine in a favorable environment for bacteria - aides digestion.The solution of these two problems helps to quickly and safely get rid of dysbiosis and its symptoms.
Which doctors should be treated with abdominal distension:
gastroenterologist, internist.You may need assistance to infectious disease, the oncologist or neurologist.