Vomiting , vomiting of blood - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Vomiting - a kind of defense mechanism that protects our body from harmful substances getting into it.Vomiting in fact - is a reflex with a complex mechanism of formation and regulation.Vomiting externally - is uncontrolled eruption of stomach contents through the mouth (sometimes through the nose).All reflexes, including vomiting, consist of paths carrying information in the center of the reflex (brain), where the command is given to execute the reflex pathways and carrying a command pulse to executing authorities: stomach muscles of the diaphragm, the rib cage.Irritation of any portion of the path of the reflex may cause vomiting.Engaging all the components of the reflex path is not necessary;understanding of this is necessary to determine the cause of the vomiting.
incidence of vomiting depends on the sex, age and individual to individual.So women vomiting occurs more frequently than men, children (especially teens) are more likely than adults.People with high emotional excitability, tendency to "
Vomiting in children can occur as a response to many infections, nose and throat diseases.This is due to the immaturity of the emergence-braking gag reflex mechanisms.Vomiting in children it can often be associated with negative emotional reactions.In infant vomiting should not be confused with regurgitation of small amounts of food after feeding, and vice versa: frequent or abundant vomiting after feeding should be distinguished from vomiting associated with stomach and intestinal diseases.
Causes of vomiting are:
1. Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract:
- acute surgical disease: appendicitis, peritonitis, acute intestinal obstruction, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract;
- Chronic diseases: gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, gastritis, duodenitis, enterocolitis, cholelithiasis;
- anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract: stenosis (narrowing) of pyloric atresia (imperforate portion of the digestive tract), pancreatic developmental defects;
- infections of the gastrointestinal tract: food poisoning, viral infection, helminth infections;
- Foreign bodies of the esophagus, stomach, intestines;
- functional disorders accompanied by impaired gastric motility, intestinal
- Oncological processes
2. Diseases of the central nervous system trauma and brain tumor, increased intracranial pressure, brain infection (meningitis, encephalitis)
3. Diseases of the cardiovascular system: heart failure, hypertension, myocardial infarction.
4. Diseases of the inner ear: labyrinthitis, Meniere's disease
5. Endocrine diseases: hyperthyroidism, ketoacidosis in diabetes, phenylketonuria, lack of adrenal function.
6. Ingestion of toxic substances, and side effects of medications
7. Psychogenic reactions: anxiety, fear, hysteria, habitual vomiting, as the expression of certain emotions.
Nausea and vomiting may be the result of "rocking".Vomiting often occurs in the first trimester of pregnancy when toxemia (preeclampsia).
Nausea and vomiting occur in many diseases.Most often precedes vomiting nausea, vomiting and bring relief to the patient.However, this does not happen in all cases, and the presence or absence of nausea is an important diagnostic criterion.
Let us examine more diseases in which vomiting occurs.
Vomiting occurs in diseases, united in the concept of "acute abdomen", requiring urgent surgical intervention - is acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, peritonitis, ileus.
surgical diseases of the abdominal cavity bodies often have a rapid onset, accompanied by severe pain, usually in the field of localization process.
for appendicitis is - the lower part of the abdomen on the right.Characteristic symptom of appendicitis - moving their average pain upper abdomen (epigastrium) down.For acute pancreatitis is characterized by pain in the left upper quadrant or girdle, pancreatitis often combined with acute cholecystitis (gallbladder inflammation), then the pain is localized in the upper abdomen.Vomiting relief for these conditions usually does not work.
Liver disease , in which the possible vomiting, accompanied by symptoms of violation of its functions: a sense of bitterness in the mouth, dark urine, jaundice of the skin color, skin itch.
Chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract also accompanied by pain, depending on the localization process.The occurrence of pain associated with the reception of annoying sharp, hot or cold dishes.The presence of chronic diseases of the stomach and intestines to the patient, usually known.
Acute infectious diseases of the stomach and intestines in addition vomiting accompanied by diarrhea, fever, intoxication.
vomiting as a symptom of brain diseases and injuries , no relief can occur for no apparent reason.These diseases are characterized as headache, altered mental status.Brain tumors in the early stages may not cause serious violations, as manifested by various symptoms of "obscure" Origin: dizziness, decreased or increased blood pressure, infringement of sensitivity of different parts of the body, dizziness, speech, change of gait, including vomiting.Vomiting may be the first sign of infectious lesions of the brain and its membranes (encephalitis, meningitis).
periodically arise severe headache, accompanied by vomiting , can be a migraine attack - frequent disease, especially in women.For migraine is characterized by intolerance to noise, bright light, the occurrence of pain can be triggered by smells, the use of certain products.
Headache, decreasing or passing after vomiting can be a sign of high blood pressure.
Vomiting appearing in diseases of the inner ear , accompanied by tinnitus, vertigo, incoordination.
Vomiting in diabetes of an incorrectly held and the treatment of complications - ketoacidosis.Toxic components of wrong glucose metabolism, are almost all parts of the gag reflex.
vomiting in case of poisoning other toxic substances, or as a side effect of the action of drugs is due to effects on the stomach and intestines receptors or directly at the center of vomiting after absorption into the bloodstream.Usually it is enough to leading questions that the patient have an episode of use or contact with various substances from building materials and fluids to the suspected foods.
Vomiting in infectious diseases.
Acute intestinal infections.In this group of diseases vomiting, often accompanied by symptoms of intoxication: fever, weakness, pain in muscles and joints.Often preceded by vomiting diarrhea, or these symptoms appear simultaneously.This vomiting brings relief to the patient.These diseases include salmonellosis, food poisoning, dysentery, yersiniosis, cholera.In addition, vomiting occurs in worm infestations.
acute common infections.Almost any acute infectious disease occurs with signs of intoxication, which in some patients, especially in young children, often accompanied by vomiting - often single - and diarrhea.
Infectious diseases of the brain and its membranes.If it affects the membranes of the brain to the symptoms of intoxication joins severe headache, severe vomiting;then can appear confusion, convulsions.A characteristic feature of this vomiting is often the lack of anticipatory nausea and subsequent ease of being.
to search for causes of vomiting, it is necessary to pay attention to the contents of the vomitus.So the presence of unmodified (red) blood will talk about bleeding from the throat of the vessels, the esophagus or upper part of the stomach (Melora-Weiss syndrome).The blood reacts with gastric juice will have a brown color "coffee ground" impurity such modified blood will speak about the bleeding from the stomach or (rarely) from the duodenum.
Vomiting blood may indicate bleeding from a stomach ulcer or duodenal ulcer, bleeding from esophageal varices in people with cirrhosis of the liver.Vomiting blood, with a dash of foam indicates mostly on pulmonary hemorrhage.
Vomiting with a small admixture of blood may be at erosive gastritis.
presence of bile in the vomit will speak either about a simple casting her in the stomach, or a violation of patency of the duodenum.In very rare cases, the impurities in the vomit may include: pus (abscess of the stomach), foreign bodies, worms.
time of vomiting
Guess the cause of vomiting can estimate the time of its occurrence.Morning vomiting characteristic of pregnancy, brain diseases, alcoholic gastritis.Vomiting at the end of the day is typical for diseases associated with impaired gastric emptying.Vomiting that occurs after a meal, sometimes with gastritis or peptic ulcer.
smell of vomit
smell of vomit can give an idea about the processes occurring not only in the gastrointestinal tract.So sour smell can talk about processes with increased acid production, such as peptic ulcer, with stagnation of food in the stomach the smell of vomit will be rotten, and when intestinal obstruction - fecal.In addition, the specific smell of chemicals will point to the use of surrogate alcohol or fluids.The smell of ammonia occurs in patients with renal insufficiency, and acetone - in patients with diabetes mellitus.
patient survey with vomiting
run diagnostics on the symptom of vomiting, in addition to a detailed interrogation of the patient, using laboratory and instrumental methods of research:
CBC will help clarify the nature (infectious and other) diseases, biochemical blood tests will reveal the level of metabolic productsglucose, to evaluate the function of almost any organ.Fibrogastroduodenoscopy would eliminate the diseases of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum.Radiography of the gastrointestinal tract, carried out with the use of X-ray contrast agents, will help to identify the disease throughout the gastrointestinal tract.As additional methods of research used ECG, ultrasound, computed tomography.
vomiting Treatment should be aimed primarily at eliminating the reasons that caused it.For the symptomatic treatment of vomiting of different groups of drugs are used: tranquilizers (diazepam, fenozepam) and antipsychotics (haloperidol, etaperazin) are used for non-severe vomiting, antihistamines (promethazine hydrochloride, dimenhydrinate) used for vomiting caused by inner ear disorders.More effective in the symptomatic treatment of dopamine antagonists (metoclopramide, Reglan), like the group of motor function of the digestive tract stimulant "cisapride" has more peripheral effect and deprived of certain side effects of metoclopramide.Drugs - serotonin receptor antagonists (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron) are used for vomiting associated with chemotherapy of cancer.When
frequent vomiting and dehydration to correct electrolyte imbalance apply saline (rehydron) inside and in the form of intravenous infusions (Ringer's solution).
Folk remedies for the treatment of emesis
Traditional methods of treating emesis in the home include the use of herbal concoctions that have a calming effect (valerian, lemon balm, mint), antispasmodic and sedative effect on the gastric mucosa (camomile, fennel).For a drink with vomiting recommend green tea, lemon water.Frequently occurring national way: Vodka with salt and orange juice is not for everyone, this method is not worth trying first.
eat vomiting should not be to determine the cause of vomiting.If vomiting in a child call a doctor immediately and do not exercise care in the home.
Complications of vomiting Vomiting
not only can be a sign of terrible diseases, but also the cause complications such as dehydration, breaks the esophageal mucosa, stomach, pharynx.Vomit entering the respiratory tract, causing so-called aspiration pneumonia.With frequent vomiting, gastric juice entering the mouth, destroying teeth - caries develops.
When and to what doctor to treat vomiting
If vomiting occurs, access to a doctor (usually a doctor or ambulance district internist) should accelerate if:
1. You do not know the cause of vomiting;
2. Vomiting repeated many times;
3. The vomit there is an admixture of scarlet or altered brown blood
4. Vomiting is accompanied by signs of lesions of the central nervous system: violation of consciousness, severe headache, neck tension with the inability to bend the neck;
5. Vomiting is accompanied by clear signs of infectious bowel disease (loose stools, fever, impaired consciousness);
6. It is assumed that the cause of vomiting can be the use of toxic substances;
7. You do not know what to do or how to help the patient.
Help what doctors may be needed if there is vomiting:
Help what doctors may needif there is vomiting blood: