Nausea - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Nausea - a kind of unpleasant sensation in the pit of the stomach, breast, oral cavity, which often precedes vomiting and is often accompanied by general weakness, sweating, increased salivation, cold extremities, pallor of the skin, the blood pressure reduction.
Possible reasons not related to any disease:
1. Overeating and / or regular consumption of products with a very high fat content;
2. Side effects of drugs and penetration into the body of toxic substances;
3. Psychogenic reactions: fear, anxiety, hysteria;
4. kinetoses (seasick), accompanied by a feeling of nausea and "sickness";
5. pregnancy (morning sickness normally takes place at the end of the first trimester);
6. Exposure to smoke, toxic fumes and various harmful substances;
7. Sunstroke, hyperthermia.
Diseases accompanied by nausea
diseases in which there is nausea, are very diverse and can be related to the digestive, nervous, reproductive, cardiovascular and endocrine systems.
most commonly nausea develops in con
1. acute surgical diseases: peritonitis, appendicitis, acute pancreatitis, acute intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, acute cholecystitis;
2. Chronic diseases: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and hiatal hernia, gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, enterocolitis, duodenitis, gallstone disease, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome, chronicpancreatitis;
3. malformations of the digestive tract: narrowing of the pylorus (stenosis), imperforate portion of the gastrointestinal tract (atresia), pancreatic developmental defects;
4. infection of the gastrointestinal tract: viral gastroenteritis, food poisoning, helminthiasis;
5. foreign body of the stomach, esophagus, intestines;
6. functional disorders accompanied by a violation of the motor function of the stomach and intestines;
7. liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis);
8. intolerances or food allergies.
Also disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, nausea can be caused by diseases of other organs and systems:
1. Diseases of the central nervous system: tumor and brain injury, brain infection (encephalitis, meningitis), increased intracranial pressure.
2. Diseases of the cardiovascular system: hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction.
3. Diseases of the inner ear: Meniere's disease, labyrinthitis.
4. Endocrine: diabetes mellitus - ketoacidosis;thyrotoxicosis, adrenal insufficiency function, phenylketonuria.
5. Kidney disease (urolithiasis, renal failure);
Nausea followed by cancer treatment (chemotherapy and radiation therapy), blood electrolyte imbalance, migraine.
Nausea may be a manifestation of the urgent conditions such as poisoning, diabetic ketoacidosis, obstruction of the intestines, brain hemorrhage, acute cardiovascular potologii, kidney failure, liver failure, sepsis.
most often nausea occurs is not alone, and in combination with other symptoms: abdominal pain, belching, diarrhea, flatulence, dyspepsia, vomiting, muscle aches, dizziness, severe fatigue, fever and chills, headache, yellowness of the skin and sclera.
Particular attention should be given to a combination of nausea with the following symptoms: chair black or the presence of blood in the stool, presence of blood in the vomit, severe abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, fainting, disturbance of consciousness, high fever (more than 38.5° C), rapid pulse, rapid shallow breathing, severe headache, neck stiffness.The appearance of these symptoms are indicative of the development of life-threatening conditions which, if found necessary to seek immediate medical attention.Also be sure to see a doctor for nausea after suffering a head injury.
patient survey with nausea.
Nausea is a nonspecific symptom of many diseases, therefore, has diagnostic value only in conjunction with other signs of the disease (eg, signs of peritoneal irritation in acute appendicitis).
survey to determine the direction it is necessary to conduct a survey of the patient active.So, if nausea is accompanied by other dyspeptic symptoms (. Belching, feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region, etc.) and found a relationship between the occurrence of nausea and food intake - should be suspected of the digestive system diseases (gastritis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, gastric tumor, etc...)gastroenterological and conduct a survey;with a combination of nausea with headache, sensitivity disorders or motions necessary neurological examination, and so on. d.
specify what drugs the patient took.For drugs, which often cause nausea and vomiting, include: analgesics, cardiovascular drugs, hormones, antibiotics, drugs acting primarily on the central nervous system, and antitumor agents.Use or withdrawal of drugs can also cause nausea or vomiting.If the cancellation of the drug is accompanied by the disappearance of nausea, it can be assumed that this disorder is associated with taking the drug, but is required to ensure the absence of symptoms for a considerable distance of time after discontinuation of the drug.
An objective examination reveals "acute abdomen" and other life-threatening conditions.If the cause of nausea is not installed, then carry out laboratory tests:
1. CBC (possible anemia, leukocytosis, accelerated erythrocyte sedimentation rate in gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis, and others.);
2. electrolytes, urea, creatinine (studied for the diagnosis of kidney function and assessment of water and electrolyte imbalance);
3. biochemical parameters of liver function: ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), gamma - glutamyl, total protein levels in the blood, blood albumin, bilirubin);
4. Blood glucose (normal values 3,3 5,5 mmol / L increase in glucose level indicates the probability of diabetes);
5. biochemical parameters pancreatic alpha-amylase enzyme, a lipase enzyme;
6. antibodies to Helicobacter pylori (for the detection of gastric ulcer associated with H. pylori infection);
7. The analysis of feces for the diagnosis of digestive diseases estimated amount, texture and shape, color, smell, impurities, presence of mucus, pH;at a chemical level determined blood levels of bilirubin, stercobilin protein;
8. The study of intestinal microflora is performed in the diagnosis of intestinal dysbiosis.
plan further evaluation depends on the patient's age and clinical manifestations.Especially it must be careful when nausea and vomiting observed over a long time.
In women of childbearing age should take a pregnancy test.
sometimes need urinalysis, toxicological research, cultivation and study of the function of the endocrine glands (TSH and thyroid hormones, cortisol levels in the morning on an empty stomach).
To eliminate diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and biliary tract perform plain radiography of the abdominal cavity, the study of the stomach and intestines with barium, ultrasound of the abdomen, CT and endoscopic examinations.
FEGDS (fibrogastroduodenoscopy) is primarily designed to eliminate obstruction, gastric ulcers and 12 duodenal ulcer or other organic pathology.
Colonoscopy is necessary to identify ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, chronic non-ulcer colitis in suspected neoplastic process.
pH - meters of wire for the study of the secretory function of the stomach in cases of suspected gastritis, stomach ulcer.
Rektomanoskopiya used in diseases of the rectum.
case of suspected neurological disorders (migraine, increased intracranial pressure, abnormalities of the inner ear), which can cause persistent or recurrent nausea, should conduct a clinical neurological examination to exclude increased intracranial pressure by examining the fundus of the eye or of magnetic resonance tomography of the brain.
Sometimes, diagnosis requires esophageal manometry, daily esophageal pH monitoring, the study of motor and evacuation function of the stomach, and sometimes electrogastrography research and motility of the small intestine.
If you suspect that psychiatric diseases that cause persistent or recurrent nausea, anxiety disorders, depression, eating disorders appointed psychiatrist consultation.
Since nausea is a symptom, its method of treatment depends on the cause has or underlying disease.If you suspect a disease it is important not to self-medicate, since nausea may be related to urgent conditions or the initial manifestation of severe pathologies that require immediate treatment to the doctor and started a specific treatment under medical supervision.
If the cause is not related to the disease as quickly as possible is necessary to eliminate the effect of the harmful factors (sun, smoke, excess food).
If seasickness is possible to use skopalamina in a transdermal patch for 5-6 hours prior to travel.
When pregnancy is recommended to rest and leisure, can be applied inside meklozin 25 mg 2 times a day or 50 mg suppositories.
To eliminate nausea in such cases it is possible to use folk remedies:
• When nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is recommended, there is often little.In the morning, drinking only water with lemon or slightly sweetened juice, biscuits there.
• proven remedy for nausea is green tea.
• On grater grate the ginger root, add to the dish.
• Before eating drink 0.25-0.5 tablespoon fresh potato juice.
• Pour a glass of boiling water a tablespoon of peppermint leaves.Let stand for two hours.Tincture to take a tablespoon three times a day.
• 200 ml of water to boil a teaspoon of fennel seeds.Take for poisoning, indigestion.
• Pour a glass of boiling water 4 teaspoons of dry chopped herbs lemon balm.Infuse for a few hours.Eat before meals four times a day ½ cup.
• Pour 400 ml of cold water two teaspoons of the watch is a triple, to insist for eight hours.Shelf life for a day.It is used for nausea to stimulate digestion.
In some cases, if left untreated, nausea can lead to complications such as dehydration (disruption of water and electrolyte balance of the body) and the lack of nutrients in the body.As a rule, this is due to the inability to keep the body in water or food, and lack of appetite.
To which the doctor ask for nausea?
Depending on the associated symptoms may need to consult a therapist, gastroenterologist, neurologist, psychiatrist, toxicologist, endocrinologist, allergist.
therapists Kletkina Y.