Diarrhea (diarrhea ) - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment .MF .
Diarrhea - a syndrome that manifests watery loose stools (diarrhea) more than 3 times a day or liquid stools with blood more than 1 time per day.
symptoms of diarrhea:
frequent bowel movements, loose stool, loose stools, diarrhea, watery stool
Diseases in which it may be diarrhea
• Addison's disease
• Bowel cancer
• Gastroenteritis (stomach flu)
• intestinal lamblia (a kind of protozoa flagellated cells, the parasite fine human colon -Giardia Lamblia.)
• human immunodeficiency virus
• Inflammatory bowel disease: intestinal problems
• irritable bowel syndrome
• lactose intolerance
• Microscopic colitis (lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis)
• toxic shock syndrome
travelers • Ulcerative colitis
diarrhea can cause:
bowel • collagen colitis
• Fistula • Ischemia
bowel • Medications (both prescription and non-prescription)
bowel • Radiation therapy •
• Food poisoning
There are acute and chronic forms of diarrhea.Acute diarrhea associated with intestinal infection and a viral, bacterial and parasitic nature for up to 4 weeks.Chronic diarrhea is associated with diseases of the digestive system and continues for more than 4 weeks.
Acute diarrhea transmitted by the fecal-oral route, when consuming food and water contaminated by microorganisms.The causative agents of diarrhea include: bacteria (E. coli, salmonella, dysentery bacteria, Vibrio cholerae), viruses (rotaviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses) and protozoa (giardia, dysentery amoeba).Severity of symptoms of the disease depends on the pathogen, the number of microbes caught in the gastro-intestinal tract, the immune system of the person.
acute intestinal infection caused by Escherichia coli occurs with moderate phenomena of intoxication: fever, weakness, loss of appetite, fever up to 38 C, paroxysmal pain in the lower abdomen, false urges to the act of defecation, loose stools up to 10 times per day.The symptoms do not last more than a week.
diarrhea caused by salmonella, dysentery bacteria runs hard.Frequent watery stools up to 10-30 times a day, mixed with blood and pus.Abdominal pain, false desires to the act of defecation.During and after stool tenesmus there - pulling the nature of pain in the rectal area, the temperature rises to 40 C. Because of dehydration, there is tachycardia, decreased blood pressure, dry skin, weakness.
most severe infectious disease, prone to the spread of the pandemic - cholera, begins suddenly, with frequent acute, profuse, watery diarrhea, repeated vomiting, leading to rapid dehydration.Increasing muscle weakness, dry skin, quickens the pulse, blood pressure falls, there are convulsions.Body temperature remains normal or reduced, no abdominal pain, nausea.
Diarrhea caused by parasitic pathogens (amoeba, giardia), develops gradually and is manifested by bloody diarrhea, persistent abdominal pain.
There are travelers' diarrhea.It occurs in the first two weeks in individuals traveling outside their region, and lasts no more than one week.The causes of this form of diarrhea is a change in diet, water quality, climate change, stress.All cases of infection associated with food and water microorganisms.Disease begins acutely, the body temperature is normal, there is nausea, vomiting, cramping abdominal pain, frequent, up to 10 times per day, watery stools.The disease passes at reception enveloping means and in compliance with diet, sanitation and hygiene rules (avoid eating food, insufficiently cooked, unpasteurized dairy products, tap water, vegetables and fruit, washed with such water, wash hands before eating and after going to public places,toilet).
Acute respiratory infections, often caused by an adenovirus and rotavirus along with catarrhal symptoms (nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, cough, sore throat) can cause acute viral gastroenteritis, manifested loose stools, nausea, vomiting, fever, muscle weakness.In severe influenza, more "pork", along with an increase in temperature to 40 ° C, headache, pains in muscles and joints, dry cough, shortness of breath occurs, and frequent, loose stools.
Chronic diarrhea occur many diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.Chronic pancreatitis is characterized by pain in the upper abdomen, herpes nature, extending to the left side of the chest.The pain is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, not bringing relief, bloating and frequent, abundant, smelly stools, steatorrhea.The aggravation of the disease provokes eating spicy, fatty, smoked food, alcohol.
bloody diarrhea, especially at night, abdominal pain, anemia, fever up to 38 degrees, joint pain - arise in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, pseudomembranous colitis, intestinal tumors.
Celiac disease - a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of enzymes break down grains, manifested by diarrhea (stool copious, frothy), bloating, weight loss, anemia.Exacerbations of the disease associated with the use of products made from wheat, rye, oats, barley.
Diarrhea accompanied by non-infectious colitis.They may be caused by toxic effects of drugs (cytostatics, antibiotics, digoxin, salicylate, diclofenac, uncontrolled use of laxatives), allergy, helminthic infestation, the abuse of alcohol, after radiotherapy.
antibiotic-associated diarrhea occurs during or after receiving 1- 10 days after discontinuation of the drug.Manifested cramping abdominal pain subsides after a copious watery diarrhea.After drug withdrawal symptoms quickly disappear.
functional diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome associated with impaired intestinal motility and determined when excluded all diseases.This condition develops at a young age, manifestations associated with a history of stress on the background of depression.Disturb pains, rumbling, bloating, disturbance of a chair in the shape of psevdodiarei (increased stool decorated with stool consistency).
survey with diarrhea
for diagnosis is necessary bacteriological examination of feces, thus identify the causative agent, the analysis of a feces on eggs of worms - to determine helminthic invasion, fecal occult blood test - to avoid bloody diarrhea, the study of fecal bacteria overgrowth - to assessthe state of the intestinal microflora.
Koprotsitogramma - help identify inflammation in the intestines, and the extent of the digestion of food, the determination of elastase-1 in the stool, her presence confirms the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis.
Complete blood count - it determine signs of acute or chronic inflammation, the presence of anemia.With frequent, profuse diarrhea is necessary to assess the degree of dehydration, this is determined in the biochemical analysis of blood electrolytes, total protein and protein fractions.
Chronic diarrhea is performed colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy - to avoid colon pathology.
To evaluate the motor function of the intestine, the identification of organic bowel changes carried out X-ray examination - irrigoscopy.
ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis - to avoid diseases of the pancreas, liver, tumors in the abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space.
treatment of diarrhea (diarrhea)
the treatment of diarrheal syndrome need to dieting.Power fractional, all dishes are steamed or boiled, is excluded sharp, salty, fried, smoked food, alcoholic beverages, canned food, soft drinks, coffee, chocolate.It is recommended to make the mucous soups, rice porridge, crackers, baked potatoes, boiled eggs.
Diarrhea take enveloping agents, chelators, which absorb and excrete viruses, pathogenic bacteria, toxins, intestinal gases.
These substances are always used as a first aid in case of poisoning.Enterosorption used for acute and chronic poisoning in children and adults.An example of a modern, efficient enterosorbent for first aid at various poisoning is Enterosgel.
Attention!The use of anti-diarrheal (Imodium, loperamide) is contraindicated in acute intestinal infection, since they prevent the removal of the toxins from the liquid contents of the intestine, with bloody diarrhea, since these drugs help to exacerbate destruction of the intestinal mucosa, thereby aggravate the disease.
the treatment of diarrhea using medicinal plants that have antibacterial, astringent, anti-inflammatory action.Blueberries (1-2 teaspoons of dried berries pour a glass of boiling water, cool and take 4 times a day), decoctions of oak bark, fruits, alder, root burnet (2 tablespoons plant poured 0.5 liters of boiling water, boil for 20 minutes, cooled,and take 2 tablespoons 4 times a day).Take for 7-10 days.
diarrhea Diarrhea is a symptom of many diseases, but above all, it causes dehydration, which leads to the development of seizures, coma.Possible complications include diarrhea: infectious-toxic shock, sepsis, peritonitis.
disease outcome may be unfavorable in patients with compromised immune systems (host hormones, cytostatics, HIV-positive, had undergone chemotherapy and radiation therapy).Not timely initiation of treatment may lead to an unfavorable outcome.
To which the doctor ask for diarrhea
If you have diarrhea should contact their GP (general practitioner, pediatrician, family doctor).It will assess the severity of the patient, prescribe the necessary examinations and treatment.It may need to consult a gastroenterologist.
urgently need to seek medical care for patients with diarrhea if: loose stool more than 10 times a day, high fever, bloody diarrhea, mucus in the stool, abundant light stools, decreased body temperature below normal, the diarrhea in children under 5 years, andadults older than 60 years, with a sharp decrease in blood pressure and deterioration of general condition.
physician therapist of the highest category Vostrenkova I.N